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Full text of "Fashion drawing and design : a practical manual for art students and others"

HION DRAWING 
AND DESIGN 




LOIE M. CHADWICK 



MAR - 9 1927 



FASHION 
DRAWING AND DESIGN 



Frontispiece 




H A R RODS 

Fig. I. A Design in Four Colours for Cover of Catalogue 



FASHION 
DRAWING ^ DESIGN 

A PRACTICAL MANUAL FOR 
ART STUDENTS AND OTHERS 



BY 

LUIE M. CHADWICK 

Fashion Artist 

Member of the Society of Women 

Journalists ; Member of the Society 

of Miniaturists 






LONDON 
B. T. BATSFORD LTD., 94 HIGH HOLBORN 



VO vo 



FIRST PUBLISHED IN MDCCCCXXVI. 
MACE AND PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN 
BY FLEET WAY PRESS LTD., LONDON. 



PREFACE 

This book on Fashion Drawing and Design is intended to be a 
text book for Fashion Artists, and not an up-to-date fashion book. 
The illustrations have been carefully selected to show the methods 
of painting for reproduction, fashion drawings in different stages, 
the technique of representing fabric, and the values of light and 
shade. 

The modes may not be those of the very latest moment, but 
if they were chosen to-day, the fashions sometimes change so 
rapidly that by the time the book is safely through the printer's 
hands, much may have altered by Dame Fashion's decree. The 
aim of the book, however, is not vainly to record of fashions 
at any particular time, but to explain and illustrate the various 
methods and styles of drawing in general use for recording dresses 
of different types, with their manifold detail accessories, and 
it is hoped that a representative review on these lines has been 
brought together. 

So many young people aie seeking a career and wish to take 
up Fashion Drawing, that a book dealing with the subject in 
all its branches will be, I hope, of practical assistance, though 
nothing can take the place of intensive personal study and 
practice. 

There are some classes in connection with Schools of Art, but 
these are very few, and several have closed down. I do not quite 
know the reason, but principally, I think, the fashion students 
are discouraged by the master, who usually affects to despise 
fashion drawing and tells the students he wishes them to go in 
for " real art," instead of raising the standard and showing them 
how much good drawing is essential, and that most of the celebrated 
artists did not disdain any kind of painting, even the signs of 
coaching inns. 

L. CHADWICK. 

Hampstead, 

August, 1926. 



NOTE OF ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

I must acknowledge the great kindness I have received from everyone, 
advertising managers, well-known manufacturers, drapery firms and editors 
of newspapers and magazines, all of whom willingly lent me blocks and 
drawings to illustrate the different methods of Fashion Drawing. Thanks 
must be given to Messrs. Aquascutimi for the powerful drawings by Mr. 
Tom Purvis (Figs. 74, 146, 148, 165) ; to the Aerograph Company for so 
kindly allowing me to quote from their booklet on the use of the Aerograph 
and for the loan of illustrations (Figs. 77 and 78) ; to Messrs. Burberry 
for the characteristic pen drawings of Mr. C. Roller (Figs. 59, 171) ; to Messrs. 
John Barker (Figs. 63, 113, 163) ; Madam Barri, for the clever silhouettes 
(Figs. 43 and 44, also 79 and 80) ; Messrs. Courtaulds for illustrations of the 
well-known Luvisca (Figs. 39, 40 and 145) ; The Celanese Company for Fig. 
61, and the Chilprufe Manufacturing Company for the charming drawings 
of children by Miss Hocknell (Figs. 86, 168). 

Amongst other firms represented by illustrations are Messrs. Hoyle and 
Sons (Fig. 85) ; Messrs. Derry and Toms (Fig. 120) ; Messrs. Debenham and 
Preebody for the drawings by Miss Beatrice Spiller (Figs. 35, 36, 170) ; also 
Messrs. Emile (Figs. 153, 154) ; and Maison Nicol for studies of Hairdressing 
(Figs. 151, 152) ; Messrs. Elliots (Fig. 159); Messrs. Jays (Figs. 144, 147) ; 
whilst special thanks are due to Harrods for the charming Frontispiece 
(Pig. i) and Figs. 38, 58. Other illustrations were provided by Messrs. 
Jenner (Fig. 10 1) ; Messrs. Gorringe (Figs. 63, 64) ; Messrs. Lashwood 
(Pigs. 119, 121); Messrs. Marshall and Snelgrove (Pigs. 89, 90); Messrs. 
Maclure Macdonald and Co. (Figs. 115, 116) ; and Messrs. Phillips and Co. 
(Fig. 169). 

The reproduction of fashions published in the loUowing newspapers 
and magazines have been a great aisset to the book, and the courtesy and 
kindness of the Editors was most encouraging. V Art ei La Mode contri- 
buted illustrations by Soulie, the doyen of Fashion Artists (Pigs. 47, 53, 
57, 114) ; The Daily Mail (Pigs. 109, 149, 161), sketches by Miss Bessie 
Ascough ; The Daily News and Star (Figs. 62, 67, :o2) ; Daily Express 
(Fig. 142. from a design by Captain Molyneux, drawn by Miss Madge Munro) ; 
also The Gentlewoman (Figs. 37, 83, 88, 112, 150, 152, 158, 160) ; The Lady 
(Pigs. 41, 66, no, III, 135) ; The Sketch (Pigs. 69, 71, 166) ; The Queen 
(Figs. 68, 76) ; Vogue (Figs. 81, 82, 87) ; and Harper's Bazaar, an American 
periodical widely known for its fine reproductions (Figs. 51, 164, drawn by 
Ert6, and 52, 72, 73, 123). 

Many thanks are also due to the Director of the Print Room, South 
Kensington Museum, for the facilities he gave me for studying old fashion 
plates and the permission to reproduce them. 

I cannot conclude these acknowledgments without thanking Mr. Harry 
Batsford, who placed so many books of reference at my disposal, and for 
his help and advice ; also to Mr. A. W. Haggis for the technical notes on 
colour reproduction which appear in Chapter VIII. 

L. C. 

Tlii 



CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

PREFACE vii 

I. INTRODUCTION 3 

II. HOW TO BEGIN 17 

Materials required. The necessity of making 
numbers of pencil sketches. Measurements of the 
figure, studies of drapery, pose, grouping, simple 
lines. 

III. WASH DRAWING 32 

The method of wash drawing carried through 
from first washes to finished sketch, with 
instruction for the painting of texture and 
detail. 

IV. LINE DRAWING 63 

Different styles of penwork. Line work suitable 
for catalogue or for newspapers and quick 
printing. Effects obtained by masses of black. 
How to show silk, wool, etc., in line. 

V. LINE AND WASH 92 

The vogue of this method. The difficulty of its 
execution. The danger of too many lines. Chalk 
and wash for advertisements. Red chalk to give 
effect. Stippling or cross hatching. 

VI. CHILDREN'S FASHIONS AND LINGERIE .... 112 
Natural and simple. Great demand and little 
competition, very few artists able to portray real 
children. Care in drawing dresses according to 
age. Lingerie — Graceful figures. Fine lines and 
detail. 

ix 



X CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

VII. MILLINERY 133 

The drawing of pretty faces. Sketching at 
wholesale warehouses. Milliners difficult to 
please. The correct angle at which to place the 
hat or the head. The curve of the brim. The 
same hat made to look dowdy or smart. How to 
paint and draw feathers, straw, ribbon, flowers, 
fruit, etc., and other hat trimmings. 

VIII. FASHIONS IN COLOUR 155 

Surface of boards. Cover designs. Two and 
three colour painting for reproduction. Show 
cards. Matt colours. Quickness and brilliant 
I effect obtained by using these. Coloured paper 
or board for background. Painting on white 
paper. Cutting out and painting on coloured 
ground. Colour and the reproduction of colour. 

IX. FASHION DESIGN 182 

Fashions of the Middle Ages. Greek, Eg3T5tian, 
Chinese influence. Ideas from old prints. Dresses 
for Pageants and the Stage. Designing for 
magazines and papers. 

X. BACKGROUNDS 209 

Interiors for evening dresses, afternoon frocks, 
restatarant gowns. Perspective. Furniture. 
Landscapes for costumes and sports coats. 
Nursery, play-room, seashore or garden for 
children, with suitable games or toys. Correct 
accessories, golf clubs, tennis racquets, fishing 
rods for sports dress. 

XI. FASHIONS IN HAIRDRESSING 224 

A Branch of Fashion Drawing. A department 
of large stores. High prices given, not over- 
crowded. 



CONTENTS xi 

Chapter Page 

XII. ACCESSORIES 231 

Christmas gifts, gloves, shoes, bags, umbrellas, 
sunshades, etc. Bead chains, etc., sketched by 
fashion artists for complete catalogues. 

XIII. FASHION DRAWING AS A CAREER 239 

The Free Lance Artist. Interviewing agents and 
advertising managers. Working for printers. 
Sketching at shops and wholesale houses. 
Commercial and fashion studios. Advice upon 
specialising. Specimens to show. Resum6. 

INDEX 261 




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INTRODUCTION 

In the seventies and eighties and up to twenty years ago fashion 
drawing was very stilted and inartistic ; the figures were out of 
proportion, more resembling hour-glasses than human beings, 
and it was a golden time for the unskilled or partially trained 
amateurs, as it was thought quite undignified and derogatory 
to condescend to record fashions. Then a few artists saw the 
possibilities and struck out a new line. Graceful, natural, and 
life-like figures began to appear in the magazines and papers. 
Fashion editors became more critical, the Drapers' Advertising 
Managers more fastidious, until the present high standard was 
reached, and now fashion artists have come into their own 
again. 

The attitude of the ordinary mind towards fashions and fashion 
drawing is either contemptuous or amused, but not as a rule serious. 
No thought is given to the influence of events upon dress, no 
realisation that climate makes an enormous difference, or work 
and environment, and yet when the dress and fashion is thousands 
of years old, even a glorified dressmaker's dummy is of absorbing 
interest and of great value. 

The richness and extravagance of the garments are not cavilled 
at, but the exquisite workmanship, trimming and ornamentation 
positively gloated over with the greatest enthusiasm by savants 
of all countries, and days and months are spent not only in 
excavation but in the reconstruction of these relics. What idea 
should we have had of this splendid civilisation without the 
wonderful care taken in the detail of dress. 

There is another aspect of the fashion art, and that is its historical 
value. If the student will turn to a good history, well illustrated, 
he or she will find that at the end of each period a section is devoted 
to manners and customs, and the dress and domestic life is built 



4 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

up from contemporary records, the costumes are often copied 
from brasses and effigies in the churches. If no record had been 
left we should have been much the poorer in knowledge, and 
many historical novels would have lost considerably in interest 
if dress could not have been described. 

The history of dress can only be touched upon, as this book 
is to be essentially a technical one. 

The spirit of the age has generally manifested itself in the dress 
of the time, and has adapted itself to the kind of life led by the 
people. 

Great epochs of history made equally great changes in dress. 
The age of chivalry, the Crusades which brought wonderful new 
fabrics, colours and jewels from the East, and incidentally was 
the origin of Craft Guilds. The Renaissance, the birth of civilisa- 
tion, each age left its mark upon the civil and domestic life and 
dress. 

It may be interesting to refer to some historical characters 
and their love of dress. Beatrice d'Este is a good example. In 
a letter to an agent who was going to France she writes : " I 
send you a himdred ducats, and wish you to imderstand that 
you are not to return the money if any is left after buying the 
things which I want, but are to spend it in buying some gold 
chain or anything else that is new and elegant. And if more is 
required, spend that too, for I had rather be in your debt so long 
as you bring me the latest novelties. But these are the kind of 
things that I wish to have — engraved amethysts, rosaries of black 
amber and gold, blue cloth for a camora, black cloth for a mantle 
such as shall be without a rival in the world, even if it costs ten 
ducats a yard ; so long as it is of real excellence, never mind I 
If it is only as good as those which I see other people wear, I had 
rather be without it." 

She besought an envoy in Venice at one time to get her 
" immediately silks, velvets of oriental make, brocades patterned 
all over with leopards, doves, and eagles, rare perfimies, Murano 
glass, silver, very fine Rheims linen (finer than any sample), 
bracelets and finely wrought rings." 

Beatrice d'Este was cultured, a patron of arts and a strong 
character; her devotion to clothes certainly did not indicate 
weakness. 




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INTRODUCTION 9 

Queen Elizabeth, one of our greatest monarchs, had a wardrobe 
crowded with dresses, over i,ooo it is said, and yet she was a 
wonderful ruler and very strong-minded. Marie Stuart, her rival, 
was also devoted to the toilet, and the Marie Stuart cap and collar 
are often revived. 

Women were not alone in their love of dress. Pepys, a clever, 
witty politician, speaks frequently in his diary of both his own 
and his wife's dress, and says it is " vastly becoming." 

In the eighteenth century much time and money was spent by 
Beau Brummel, Beau Nash, the Prince Regent, the Macaronis 
and Dandies of their day with their clouded canes, lace ruffles, 
wigs, etc. 

The same period showed great extravagance in women's dress. 
The hair was powdered and dressed to a prodigious height. Frances 
Bumey refers to this in Evelina. Women did not take part in 
games, and were driven in a coach or carried in sedan chairs, so 
the hoops and spread-out skirts did not incommode them as much 
as we should think. 

Jane Austen, another intellectual, did not despise dress, and in 
her letters describes new dresses and caps. 

" My cap has come home, and I like it very much. Fanny has 
one also ; hers is white sarsenet and laces of a different shape from 
mine, more fit for morning wear, which is what it is intended for, 
and is in shape exceedingly like our own satin and lace of last 
winter, shaped round the face exactly like it, with pipes and more 
fullness and a round crown inserted behind. My cap has a peak 
in front. Large full bows of very narrow ribbon (old twopenny) 
are the thing. One over the right temple perhaps, and another 
at the left ear." 

In another letter she says : " I shall want two new coloured 
gowns for the summer " {see Figs. 3 and 10), " for my pink one will 
not do more than clear me from Steventon. I shall not trouble you, 
however, to get more than one of them, and that is to be a plain 
brown cambric musUn for morning wear ; the other, which is 
to be a very pretty yellow and white cloud, I mean to buy in 
Bath." 

A learned woman is called a blue stocking, but it was really a 
man who wore stockings of that colour and attended the literary 
symposiums and salons; he was very witty and the life of the 



10 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

company, and when he appeared the " blue stockings " were 
hailed with delight. 

Some noted men and women have been distinguished by some 
eccentricity in dress, such as Gladstone's collar, Abraham Lincoln's 
hat. Chamberlain's eyeglass and orchid. 

The illustrating and description of dress is not only valuable 
from an historical point of view, but of inestimable use to novelists 
and playwrights. We all know what care is taken in dressing a 
play, and, if of bygone times, any anachronism is quickly noticed 
and pointed out. Novelists have always been very particular in 
portraying the heroine's dress, and we get a vivid description of 
Julia's toilet in The Last Days of Pompeii — 

" Julia's tunic of a deep amber, which well set off her dark hair 
and somewhat embrowned complexion, swept in ample folds to 
her feet, which were cased in slippers, fastened round the slender 
ankle by white thongs ; while a profusion of pearls were embroidered 
in the slipper itself, which was of purple, and turned sUghtly 
upward, as do the Turkish slippers at this day ... a graceful 
buckle on the left shoulder, in which was set an exquisite cameo 
of Psyche — the girdle of purple riband, richly wrought with threads 
of gold and clasped by interlacing serpents — and lastly, the various 
rings fitted to every joint of the white and slender fingers. The 
toilet was now arranged according to the last mode of Rome." 

Thackeray in Vanity Fair describes in his inimitable manner 
Becky Sharp's dress on going to Court. {See Fig. ii.) 

" Lady Jane . . . quickly spied out the magnificence of the 
brocade of Becky's train, and the splendour of the lace on her 
dress," and later on he says : " The particulars of Becky's costume 
were in all newspapers — feathers, lappets, superb diamonds, and 
all the rest." 
Again we have the fascinating Dolly Varden — 
"As to Dolly, there she was again, the very pink and pattern 
of good looks, in a smart Uttle cherry-coloured mantle, with a hood 
of the same drawn over her head, and upon the top of that hood 
a little straw hat trimmed with cherry-coloured ribbons, and worn 
the merest trifle on one side — just enough, in short, to make it the 
wickedest and most provoking head-dress that ever malicious 
milliner devised. And not to speak of the manner in which these 
cherry-coloured decorations brightened her eyes, or vied with 



INTRODUCTION li 

her lips, or shed a new bloom on her face, she wore such a cruel 
little muff, and had such a heart-rending pair of shoes, and was 
so surrounded and hemmed in, as it were, by aggravations of all 
Hnds." 

Charlotte Bronte also gave minute pictures of dress, especially 
in her celebrated book Jane Eyre, in which she makes Jane depict 
the dress and character of Mr. Rochester's guests — 

" Mrs. Colonel Dent's black satin dress, her scarf of rich foreign 
lace, and her pearl ornaments, pleased me ..." 

" But the most distinguished was the Dowager Lady Ingram, 
whose crimson velvet robe, and a shawl turban of some gold- 
wrought Indian fabric, invested her with a truly imperial dignity." 
(See Fig. 7.) 

At the present time colour and fabric are used to denote tem- 
perament. The intriguing adventuress is clad in diaphanous purple 
with a long chain of jade beads round her neck, and wearing jade 
ear-rings — her unsophisticated rival in white and pearls. The 
staunch, genuine EngUsh girl, somewhat of a hoyden, and very 
much a sportswoman, is pictured in well-worn tweeds, sensible 
shoes and pull-on hat ; in the evening she is in a simple frock, her 
healthy sunburn contrasting with the exotic bloom of the 
adventuress. 

If we go back to 1790 or 1815-20 we find fashion plates were 
beautifully drawn and designed. Well-known artists sketched 
for the Lady's Magazine, and used all their talent in depicting 
the dresses and accessories. Watteau Fils was one of these, also 
Horace Vernet, who devoted himself to fashion plates of the 
Incroyables and Merveilleux. The beauty of the execution will 
be noticed in some of the illustrations we are showing. [See Figs. 
2, 4 and 5.) The two ladies in Fig. 4 have the long sleeves and 
overskirt which, in a modified form, are worn at the present time. 
The figure in the brilliant silk is by William Holler, and can be 
taken as a very good example of how to paint silk or satin. [See 

Fig- 5) 

In our own country, up to the time of and including the Early 
Victorian era, fashion plates were carried out with great skill and 
artistry, such as those by Paris R.A. and others. [See Fig. 6.) 

The dress of to-day is a particularly happy one for a book of 
this kind, as the style ranges from the Egyptian 3000 B.C., touches 



12 



FASraON DRAWING AND DESIGN 



the Plantagenet in jumpers and sleeves, the hoop and skirts after 
the " Beggar's Opera," the caps, head-dresses, turbans and hats from 
the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century, not 
leaving out quaint touches of the early Victorian (see Figs. 8 and 9), 
and even coquetting with the high hats and stiff flowers of 1897-8. 




Fig. 8. — Early Victorian 



Fig. 9. — Walking Dress 



To reconcile all these differences of period requires knowledge 
and wide reading, but I think I have said sufficient, whether we 
consider the value of historical or modem aspects of dress, to 
encourage the would-be fashion artists and make them feel they 
are by no means obscure factors in the social life of the daj-. 



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Fig. 12. 
Preliminary Pencil Sketch of Figure. 



n 

HOW TO BEGIN 

The instruction in Fashion Drawing fonnerly given to a beginner 
was to draw a model figure which consisted of an egg-shaped 
face, a wooden-like body k la Mrs. Noah, with a narrow waist 
and a skirt drawn from a dressmaker's dummy. I suffered from 
this kind of lesson myself, and having modelled my style on these 
foimdations, had to mileam\it all again, and teach myself to draw 
living figures, not dummies. 

It is necessary to have some guide to correct figure-drawing 
and yet to avoid a stiff, stony and mechanical appearance. 

It is better to begin your study of Fashion Drawing by making 
numbers of pencil sketches of the figure in every pose you can 
see or think of. These pencil roughs should not be finished up 
at all, as it is not detail that is being aimed at but movement 
and life. Two or three of these figures should be drawn every 
day tmtil the student can put a smart figure on the cardboard 
ready for any style of dress, such as figures walking, sitting, 
kneeling, back view, etc. {See Figs. 12, 16, 17 and 18.) 

MATERIALS REQUIRED 

The materials which will be needed by the fashion artist are 
not numerous or costly ; the chief outlay will be brushes, but with 
care they last a long time. 

Boards vary considerably ; a good general art shop will keep 
several makes. Cheap boards can be used for practice, but for 
finished drawings it is better to select a good board. 

The surface should be hot pressed both for line and wash, 
especially in black and white ; for furs and colour, boards with no 
surface are better. 

Hot pressed paper and Bristol board can be used for line work. 



l8 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

For Line Drawing, Crowquill pens are the best. No. 659 will be 
found most satisfactory. 

The paint for wash drawing can be Persian Black Process, 
black, ivory or lamp-black. The last three are in tubes 

Ordinary water colours are used for fashions in colour, cover 
designs, etc. Matt colours are the best for show cards. 

White paint must be used for the high lights and white lace, etc. ; 
this should be Albanine, Process White or Chinese White. 

List of materials required : 

1. Process or Fashion Boards for Wash Drawing. 

2. Bristol Board or Hot-pressed Paper for Line. 

3. Water Colour Boards for Fashions in Colour. 

4. Coloured Paper for Show Cards and Chalk Drawings. 

5. Sable Brushes and Crowquill Pens. 

6. Persian Black Process, Ivory or Lamp-Black. 

7. Albanine Process or Chinese White. 

8. Water Colours in Tubes. 

9. Matt Colours for Show Cards. 

The student wUl find materials i, 2, 5, 6, 7, quite sufficient to 
begin with. 

Notes on Illustrations 

Practice is everything, and if the student will look upon 
these pencil sketches as he would scales in music, which the 
musician plays over and over again until he is perfect, the 
preliminary steps will soon be passed, and ease and facility 
quickly gained. 

To get the sketches correct as well as full of life, some 
measurement of proportions must be made. Generally a line is 
drawn down the centre of the paper and with a compass marked 
off in sections. This is not the way I should recommend ; the 
figure may be absolutely accurate but appears only a lay figure. 
The method I have adopted and found most successful in teaching 
is to make the beginner draw in the figure very sketchily and then 
measure the height and other proportions. At this stage it is 
easily corrected without spoiling the freedom of the sketch. 



19 




Fig. 13. 
Pencil Sketch of Draped Figure. 




Fig. 14. 
A Chalk Drawing by Lord Leighton showing a back view of a Figure 

Nude and Clothed. 




Fig. 15. 
Shows a Characteristic Study of Hands, drawn by Lord Leighton. 



24 





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HOW TO BEGIN 25 

MEASURING 

The first measurements need only be the height and very simple 
ones of the limbs. 

The head is taken as the basis of measurement, the height of 
a woman is 7^ heads, that of a man 8 heads, a child's head is much 
larger in proportion, and the student will find that very young 
children only measure 4 heads, increasing to 6 and 7 as they grow 
older. 

THE ARM AND HAND 
{See Fig. 20) 

The arm and hand reach to half way between the waist and 
the knee, the elbow comes level with the waist line if the arm 
is hanging down. If the arm is bent, the elbow is raised above 
this line in a slight or greater degree according to its inclination. 

It is very necessary to study the hand from life {see Fig. 15) 
as it is impossible to give diagrams of every position. The length 
of the hand is about the length of the face. If the fingers are spread 
out they span the face from chin to the top of the forehead. The 
fingers should be tapered and the middle finger longer than the 
others ; even in an outline drawing the nails should be indicated. 

THE HEAD 

The head should also be studied from life, but a few simple 
rules will be a help if it has to be drawn without a model. 

The pupils of the eyes are about the middle of the head, and 
if the proportion is taken from the chin to the pupil of the eye, 
and from that to the top of the head, the distance between these 
points is equal. 

The head can also be divided into three parts, the line of the 
eyebrows, the top of the nose, and the chin. The comer of the 
mouth to the outside comer of the eye is equal in space to the 
distance from the comer of the eye to the middle of the ear. If 
the face is also divided from the nose to the chin into three parts, 
the mouth will be one-third down from the nose, the dip underneath 
the second part, and the third to the point of the chin. 

THE EYES 
The eyes should be placed well apart, the width between being 
equal to the width of an eye. The upper lid is much deeper than 



26 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

the lower one, it is wider in the centre and folds over the lower 
lid at one comer and is more heavily fringed to protect the eye. 
The pupil is very dark and surrounded by an iris of different 
colours, it is liquid and reflects the light. The eye moving as it 
does on a pivot can be turned in every direction, and great care 
must be taken that the eyes are both looking the same way. 

MOUTH 

A perfect mouth is generally described as a cupid's bow, and 
that is the most accurate description, although poets allude to 
the heroine's mouth as a rosebud, cherry lips, etc. The upper lip 
is the exact curve taken by the traditional bow, the under lip like 
the string, but also curved, not taut ; the comers of the lips do 
not meet in a point, but the upper lip folds over the lower one. 
The raised mounds of the lower lip fit into the depressions in 
the upper one. 

NECK 

The neck and shoidders are very important, the line of the 
neck is full in front and curved into a hollow between the two 
points of the clavicle, and this dip should always be indicated, 
if only slightly. Also draw the lines of the clavicle, but do not 
emphasise these too much or it will give a bony appearance to 
the neck and shoulders. There are two muscles which also come 
to a point at the depression in the neck and start from the ears, 
where there is the widest space ; these lines form a triangle, the 
point coming to the centre of the clavicle. 

LEGS AND FEET 
Again taking the head as a basis of measurement, the distance 
from the top of the head to the knee measures 5J heads and the 
ankles 7 heads, with half a head to the sole of the foot. The foot 
forms an arch, the weight resting on the ball in front and on the 
heel. This arch or high instep is considered a form of beauty 
and also of good descent. The ankle bone should be noted and 
shown in the drawing. 

Illustration 

When the figure is walking, the foot at the back should be 
raised from the ground at the heel, the ball of the foot and toes 



2'J 





Fig. i8. 
Preliminary Pencil Sketch. 



Fig. 19. 
Draped Figure. 



The pencil sketch of standing figure is seen clothed in evening shawl or wrap. 



30 




N O 

to D 
I- 






\ 




> 
U 

Q 

< 

•Ji 

.- ■*• 

!5 o 



to 






Q 



HOW TO BEGIN 31 

resting on the ground at an acute angle level with the foot when 
stepping out. 

When these few proportions have been studied and mastered, 
the pencil sketches can be corrected and the student's power of 
drawing quickly and correctly can be gauged ; it is useless for 
him to begin the painting or detail until a certain sureness has 
been gained. 

DRAPING THE FIGURE 

The next step should be to clothe these figures in appropriate 
garments according to the pose. {See Fig. 22.) Draw a costume 
or coatfrock on a walking figure ; on a sitting figure an afternoon 
or restaurant gown ; sports coats, river dresses, tweed or washing 
frocks on figures in action. A certain amount of detail can be 
put into these sketches and it will form a prehminary exercise 
to the dress designing which comes later on in studying Fashion 
Drawing. {See Figs. 13, 14 and 19.) 

GROUPING 

At this stage some grouping may also be attempted, and two 
figures can be drawn on the same page, one sitting and one standing. 
If the proportions are studied and quick sketches made every day, 
the student will soon be able to begin wash drawing, which, I 
think, is better studied before other methods, even if the student 
afterwards specialises in line or other medium. 



Ill 
WASH DRAWING 

Now comes a more fascinating stage in Fashion Art — what is 
known as " Wash Drawing." This is really water-colour painting 
in black and white for reproduction. It is used for catalogues 
or magazines, so the dress and detail must be made clear and 
sharp, not hard, but what we call " slick." 

The boards required for wash drawing should be Fashion or 
Process boards with hot-pressed surface, except for furs, which I 
will deal with later on. Persian black. Process black, any of 
these with Albanine and Process white, and two or three good 
sable brushes, are all the materials needed. 

Sketch on your board a smart figure, very lightly, with an 
H.B. or H.H. pencil. (See Fig. 24.) When you are satisfied 
with the pose, draw in the details of the dress, keeping it quite 
simple with very few lines. The sketch should then be washed 
over with plain water, this prepares the board and to some extent 
fixes the pencil, so care must be taken not to leave a wrong line, 
as it is sometimes difficult to erase after the water is washed on. 
Let this dry and then begin to paint, using plenty of water with 
your black so that it may flow easily and dry light and smooth. 
If the brush is dry the black leaves a hard line, which is sometimes 
impossible to get out. 

Wash in the head, beginning with the principal shadows and 
dark part of the hair, which should be painted in very strongly, 
leaving the high lights to make it look soft and fluffy and like 
hair, not hard and opaque. Where the hair touches the face, 
paint a soft shadow and a few delicate lines to indicate hairs. 
Then proceed to wash in the face, painting in first all the delicate 
shadows and indicating the features. It is a good plan to wash 
over the part you wish to paint with water and rtm in the black 
while it is wet ; this gives roundness to the face, and some modelling 



33 




Fig. 22. 
Study of Drapery, by Lord Leighton. 




- ^^ 



Fig. 23. 
Muffs and other articles of Dress and Toilet, drawn by Hollar. 



I 



36 




Fig. 24. 

The Wash Drawi 
First the Pencil Sketch with detail drawn in ; then the first washes. The 





'iG. 25. Fig. 26. 

IX THREE SUCCESSIVE STAGES. 

id illustration shows the finished design with all the details carefully worked up. 



40 




Fig. 27. — Details in Wash. 





Fig. 28. Fig. 29. 

Wash Drawings of different materials and patterns 
Serge and Herringbone. 



4« 




Fig. 31. 
Knitted Wool Coat in Wash. 



Fig. 30. 
Plaid Shawl in Wash. 



WASH DRAWING 43 

can be done with the brush while the paint is wet. If you have 
drawn a pretty one, with the features lightly painted in, it is better 
to leave the face in this state and not finish up entirely, but go 
on to the dress, as the whole drawing should be worked together, 
not one part finished up before the other. 

THE DRESS 

For your first attempt at wash drawing choose something simple, 
such as a plain coat and skirt ; this is the best to begin with. Do 
not be afraid of putting on the paint. I find that this is often 
the reason the beginner spoils the drawing ; some black is put on 
faintly and then before that is dry the student tries to correct 
some imaginary fault, probably the paint is half dry and half 
wet, and a hopeless muddle is the result and the student is in 
despair. Take a fairly large brush and wash in very broadly 
the shadow side of the coat and skirt, both at the same time ; if 
they are painted separately they have the appearance of being 
a different colour and material. Paint the dark side of the sleeve 
and the little sharp triangular shadows thrown by the comer 
of the collar. When this is dry, paint the minor shadows and the 
folds, following the lines of the figure. Several gradations of 
shade will be noticed in the folds, from very deep through half 
tones to quite light ; these variations make all the difference 
to a drawing. 

Before going any further with the dress, deepen all the shadows 
on the head and model the features as much as possible. (See 
Fig. 25.) It is not necessary for quick reproduction to work up 
the face like a miniature, but every shadow and touch should 
mean something. When you paint the eyes get the pupils quite 
dark and clean and the iris liquid and transparent, don't make 
them all black with a dab of white to look like beads. The same 
care should be taken with the other parts of the face. At this 
stage work up ready for the finishing touches ; the dress must now 
be brought up to the same tone until the whole figure only requires 
the detail. [See Fig. 26.) 

Look over the painting and add any touches to sharpen the 
effect or take out any mark that should not be there. When the 
artist is quite satisfied with the finished wash he can next proceed 
to detail. (See Fig. 37.) 



44 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

DETAIL 

Modem painting ignores detail and all we get is frequently 
a suggestion of lace, a glimpse of fur, a flash of silk. To be able 
to convey this impression is imdoubtedly clever, but your client 
will usually require the exact pattern of the lace, the braid or 
the buttons, etc., which he wishes to advertise. You will find 
this meticulous care of detail in the pictures by old masters, 
Velasquez, Quintin Matsys and numbers of others, including 
those known as pre-Raphaelites, so we must not despise it ; but, 
of course, it is purely mechanical and only requires practice. Let 
us take several kinds of detail and describe how they should be 
painted. 

LACE 

The trimming or accessories to a dress depend upon the fashions 
of the moment, and the caprice of Madame Fashion is soon felt 
in the industrial centres and often makes all the difference between 
poverty and wealth. At one season the fashionable woman is 
smothered in lace, at another there are so many rows of buttons 
that we are irresistibly reminded of Alphonse, the page in Nicholas 
Nickleby, or else she is braided and f rogged like a military attache. 
It is, however, safe to assume that lace, braid and buttons will 
always be worn, so I will begin with the first named. 

The method of painting white lace is by blacking in the space 
to be covered and, when the paint is quite dry, draw the pattern 
carefully with process white, the leaves, the flowers and tendrils, 
and let this also dry ; then outline the petals, veins and dots 
with Albanine. The mesh is formed by cross lines in process white. 
For very coarse or torchon lace the whole must be put in with 
Albanine. For very fine white lace the space should not be dead 
black, but chiefly in half tones, getting a certain amount of depth 
to throw up the pattern ; a thin wash of process white over the 
dark here and there gives it a filmy look, which will help materially 
to give the lacy effect. This should be touched up in the high 
lights with process white. (See Fig. 27.) 

Practise the different kinds of lace by drawing two lines on 
your board, blacking in the space between and following the 
instruction given. If the trimming on the dress consists of flounces 
of lace, paint in the shadows and leave the high light as you would 



45 





Fig. 32. 

Flounced Silk Skirt. 

Notice the way silk is represented by 

sharp contrasts between light and 

dark. 



Fig. 33. 

Brocade Skirt. 

The pattern is darker than the 

ground but sometimes it is shown 

lighter. 



48 



;3R»:/ 




^'w. 



Fig. 34. 
An Example of painting Velvet. 



49 



K 



4 




Excellent Fur Drawings by Miss Beatrice Spiller ^ ' 
hese illustrate the richness and softness of the material. 



S" 




Fig. 37. 
Wash Drawing by Lilian Young. 



WASH DRAWING 53 

for a flounce of silk or cloth ; on this draw the pattern, using 
Albanine only on the top of the folds and process white in between. 
Black lace is the same method reversed. The paper underneath 
the lace is left almost white ; draw the detail with black (the flowers 
or design), the mesh with cross lines in black. The lace is generally 
made with silk threads ; these catch the light, so on the top of 
the flower, etc., paint delicate touches of process white, also lines 
of process white mixed with black. If the design is thick, the 
shadow has a wider dark line to raise it from the mesh. 

At the present time, evening dresses consist of a little silk and 
many beads, tunics, girdles, flounces, sheaths and armour of 
beads. The effect by artificial light is sometimes most beautiful, 
at others bizarre and barbaric, but like sheep we follow some leader 
of fashion, and in every one of us there is something of the child 
and savage, and we all love glittering things. 

A beaded sketch in colour can be made very artistic, but I 
am deaUng at present with black and white. Ordinary beads 
are painted as a round, black dot, with a tiny white spot where the 
light catches the surface. Sequins are painted in a flat half-circle, 
with a sharp, fine light on the outside edge. Pearls have a very high 
light and a shadow, and a half-tone on the shadow side ; this gives 
the beautiful luminous effect so characteristic. Avoid making 
them opaque like marbles. 

BRAID 

Military braid (see Fig. 27) is very usual on costumes or tailor- 
made dresses. Horizontal lines in black are drawn very fine 
and dose together. In the high hghts the lines should be made 
with Albanine, and in the shadows with process white mixed with 
a little black. 

On white serge coats and children's sailor dresses white braid 
is used. This is very simple ; draw fine lines in Albanine and in 
process white for the shadows. 

I must say a word about embroidery. This makes all the 
difference between an ordinary commonplace dress and an artistic 
creation. In painting embroidery in wash the student must 
endeavour to give it the appearance of being raised. Draw in your 
design Ughtly in pencil or paint. A good method is to outline 
the pattern in ink, but the drawing must be quite exact as it is 



54 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

impossible to erase the ink without injuring the paper for painting. 
If the ink is used, the dress can be washed in as I have described, 
and the design will still be visible. Paint Uttle strokes to represent 
embroidery stitches, and on the shadow side a dark line to give 
the raised effect. If the embroidery is of silk, white lines can be 
drawn across the pattern to give this appearance to it. White 
embroidery is simply reversed, and white lines drawn but a dark 
shadow under each flower, fruit or leaf to show it in relief. 

It is impossible to describe every kind of detail as new trimmings 
are constantly being invented or resuscitated, and it is necessary 
to experiment until the effect is obtained. 

FABRIC 
IliUSTRATiONS {See Figs. 39 and 40) 

When a plain wash has been satisfactorily accomplished and 
studies of detail made, the next step is to try to paint different 
materials ; the plain wash is sufficient for ordinary cloth, but there 
are many varieties, and if your client is a wholesale manufacturer 
he will require each kind to be properly defined. 

Serge is very usual and is shown by painting in diagonal lines, 
taking care that all slant in the same direction — even all straight 
folds of a skirt must be crossed in the same way. I well remember 
one of my first attempts when I rounded all the lines over folds, 
the result being very clumsy and failing to convey the idea of 
serge. Notice if it is coarse or fine serge and draw the lines 
accordingly. 

IU,U3TRATIONS — SmAI,!, DIAGRAMS 

Another cloth used in making coats has a herringbone pattern 
in the weave, and this must also be shown. {See Figs. 28 and 29.) 

Plaids are painted in the same way as the serge, following the 
pattern and made dark as they cross each other. {See Fig. 30.) 
They are difficult, as in some plaids we find a number of subsidiary 
lines. Velour and thick cloth should be painted by leaving the 
edges of the folds slightly irregular to give a soft effect. 

IlXUSTRATIONS 

Silk is painted in quite a different manner. {See Fig 32.) 
Mix the paint very liquid and washy and put on in a direct manner. 



I 



t 




Fig. 38. 
Fur in Wash. 



Fig. 40. 
Two Blouses of Luviskc.\, good 

EXAMPLES OF SILK TREATMENT. 



WASH DRAWING 57 

deciding beforehand where the light and dark will be. The edges 
of the drapery are sharp and should be left light, in between the 
folds ; a few irregvdar touches give the silky effect. Try to get 
this as far as possible without white until the very last, and then 
a few dashes of Albanine will give the required brilliance to it. 
Satin is not so sharp, the folds are heavy and the high light not 
on the top of the fold, but with two half-tones, one each side the 
light. {See Fig. 33.) 

For velvet, the paint must also be mixed very liquid. Begin 
very black, and let the colour flow over the light parts ; wet the 
light part and run in some process white. Don't let the white go 
on to the very black parts, but where the two meet, soften with 
your brush before the paint is dry. (See Fig. 34.) If the whole 
dress is of velvet, wet it all over and wash the paint on, beginning, 
as I have said, with the very blacks before the board has time 
to dry. 

FURS 

Fur is considered the most difficult to paint and some artists 
specialise in this, and by constant practice are able to paint any 
fur required. (See Fig. 23.) 

The principal effect to aim at is softness, richness and depth ; 
there are no hard lines in fur. Sable and ermine and very soft 
pliable furs fall into the most fascinating folds and little creases 
where wrapped round the shoulders. Some are more stubborn 
but even these do not lose their depth. 

Black fox or skunk is comparatively easy. Sketch in the fur, 
taking care to show its best points. This is very important as there 
is a certain fashion, which, like other fabrics, varies in the way they 
are treated ; so it is with furs — ^heads and tails one year, neither the 
next, but perhaps fringe or big fur bottoms. 

Again, in moleskin the skin is made into squares, stripes and 
other rather eccentric patterns. 

Sketch in the figure in the best position to show the shape and 
new mode of the fur, and then paint it as near as possible to the 
real thing. (See Fig. 35.) 

If the fur chosen is skunk, notice that it is generally made up of 
different strands. Wash it over with plain water and paint in the 
blacks ; these cannot be too black. Guide the paint, leaving high 



58 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

lights. Before it is dry paint little lines from the edge of the black 
in the direction of the hairs in the fur. These hairs from one strand 
come over the next one, so leave a little light between each and 
paint the hairs over it. 

IlXUSTRATIONS 

Black fox is painted in nearly the same way, but the hairs are 
much longer and it is not divided into strands. 

Seal is very similar to velvet, but where the black and light 
meet the line is irregular, with little hairs all painted in, also the 
outside line is in irregular folds with fur suggested. Pony skin 
and moire silk are painted in a similar method, the hair making 
the difference. Sable and beaver are very difficidt as a very rich 
effect must be given and soft creases and folds indicated. (See 
Fig. 36.) The hairs being so fine it is almost impossible to 
define them, and they can only be suggested. It takes much 
practice to paint these successfully. {See Fig. 38.) 

White fur is, of course, treated in a different manner. The high 
lights should never be covered even with a faint tone (see Fig. 42). 
It is impossible to get a dean wash with any black paint imder- 
neath. Begin by a wash of plain water and then paint in the 
shadows very delicately while the board is wet. When these are 
deep enough in tone, let it thoroughly dry, then wash over the 
light part and nm in some Albanine, drawing very fine lines from 
the white over the dark parts. To say they must be as fine as 
hairs exactly describes the effect at which the student must aim. 
This describes the method for long-haired white furs, such as 
fox. For ermine follow the same directions, making the hairs 
of course very much shorter. The little tails add wonderfully 
to the realistic rendering of ermine. Feather ruffles and stoles 
are treated like fur. 

I must repeat most emphatically that furs of whatever kind 
must look rich, deep and soft. 

CORRECTING A WASH 

I must not leave the subject of wash drawing without speaking 

of making corrections. It is inevitable, however careful your 

drawing may be, that some alterations may be necessary, and 

in some cases your client may wish the coat to be longer, the skirt 



59 




Fig. 41. 
Example of Wash 



Fig. 42. 

White Fur is better shown with 

a dark background and the 

shadows quite soft. 



WASH DRAWING 



6x 



shorter, a different hat or some other sometimes trivial and irritating 
difference. Then again, the dress may be beautiftilly finished and 
the figure quite spoilt by an ugly face. Let me take the latter 
contingency. There is one way in which to make a drastic change 
and that is by putting on a new head. Of course, this is a last 
recourse, but I have been asked to do up an old drawing and paint 
a different head and up-to-date hat. This is done by taking an 
accurate measurement of the space to be filled ; you then paint 
a head on a separate piece of cardboard (the same surface as the 
one you wish to alter). When you have finished the face, peel off 
the top layer of paper. Do this gradually, damping it if it sticks, 
cut out the painted head and fix it on the neck of the figure 
where the edges touch the board. Some hair can generally be 
painted over them to hide the join. It is better to cut away 
the old head, but sometimes this is not necessary ; if this is 
done very carefully the alteration cannot be detected in the 
reproduction. 

The dress can also be altered. Buy a small sponge at one of the 
art shops, or if you are in a hurry cut a small piece from your bath 
sponge and tie it to the top of an old paint brush, winding the cotton 
round and round. Sponge out the part you wish to alter with 
clean water (the black paint does not always come out and the 
student may find it necessary to use a typewriter ink eraser). 
I<et the board dry thoroughly after being sponged before using 
the rubber ; if it is damp at all the surface would be quite spoilt 
by rubbing. This in a lesser degree applies to the sponging 
out; it should be done gently and the surface of the paper 
preserved. 

When the part you wish to change has been taken out begin to 
paint in as you would do in the first instance, stippling in any 
roughness or uneven spots. 

One chapter will be entirely devoted to backgrounds, so I will 
explain the principles of those later on, but frequently when the 
figure is dressed in white or light material it is necessary to 
paint dark round the figure to show it up. If this is not properly 
done a hard line shows, which much detracts from the appearance 
of the picture. 

When the figure is partly washed in, wet the board all round 
or partly round the figure. While the paper is wet paint in very 



62 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

black near the figxire, shading in the same way that a photograph 
is vignetted. With your brush guide the paint, or if you think it 
will not dry smoothly, you can blow the paint from dark to 
light. Example of wash drawing {see Fig. 41.) 

If the student will follow these instructions it should not be 
difficult to paint a good wash drawing, but every artist has his or 
her own pons asinorutn, and must work hard to get across to reach 
success on the other side. 



IV 

LINE DRAWING 

There is more variety in the method of line drawing than in 
wash. As a mle two or even three people can work on one wash 
drawing, and then when a few finishing touches have been made 
by the original artist the whole looks fairly equal, of course not 
quite the same as if it had been the work of one artist only. In 
line drawing there is a wonderful difference. Look at the pen 
drawings in the daily papers, some simply outlined, others almost 
having the effect of an etching {see Fig. 44), such as Pegram's or 
Septimus Scott's. 

This chapter on line drawing would certainly be incomplete 
without referring to the Burberry advertisements. This method 
is frequently seen in American magazines. C. Roller is the artist, 
and I do not remember any others quite like them in England. 

IlXUSTRATIONS 

I should advise the student to specialise either in line or wash, 
and get as much originality and individuality into his work as 
possible. At the same time the ordinary fashion artist should have 
a good working knowledge of all the methods, so that he or she is 
never taken at a disadvantage. 

At the present time there seems to be more demand for fashions 
in line than for those in wash. The reason for this is partly cheap- 
ness and partly the change in the style of magazine illustrations 
and the influence of French and American artists. 

Of course, there has always been a considerable amount of 
line drawing used and occasionally some of the West End houses 
have brought out their catalogues entirely in this way. 

Very few materials are required for line drawing, Indian ink — 
the Mandarin and Dragon are good makes — crow quill pens and 
a lining-in brush, which I will speak of later on, pencils and rubber 



64 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 



with typewriter's ink-€raser for corrections. The boards should 
be Bristol or Clifton boards or hot-pressed paper. 

The student should practise drawing any number of lines 
with the pen, some curved and some straight, some thick and some 




Figs. 43 and 44. — Illustrates the use of numerous lines and is a different 
method from any of the others reproduced 



LINE DRAWING 65 

thin. This can be done with the same pen, making the difference 
by putting more pressure on the pen for the thick lines. These 
lines should be unbroken, sure and firm, not ragged and uneven. 
However fine the line is drawn, it need not be scratchy, or it will 
come out badly in reproduction and is not good pen work. 

The whole drawing must look clear and the blotted appearance 
seen in some line drawings is the result of faulty lines. Cross- 
hatching is not used quite so much now as it was some years ago, 
but I have seen very effective drawings made with the entire 
backgroimd cross-hatched. To form this cross-hatching, the lines 
are drawn slanting in one direction and then crossed by other 
lines slanting in the opposite way, or upright lines can be made with 
the lines crossing them in a horizontal direction. Whichever 
way is chosen, the cross lines should not be put in until the other 
lines are dry. If crossed when the ink is wet, it makes a blot 
where the lines meet. When the student feels he has mastered 
the different lines and can make a clean sweeping stroke with his 
pen, a figure can be attempted. 

Studies of drapery and simple figures can be drawn with 
ink in the same way as the preliminary studies for wash drawings. 

SIMPLE LINES 

It is necessary to begin with simple lines although it is difficult. 
Usually the student keeps on adding line after line, and in the 
end finds he has fallen between two methods and failed in both, 
making too many lines for a simple figure and too few for a highly 
finished one. 

Draw the figure carefully in pencil and look it over and correct 
any faults before beginning with ink, as line is more difficult to 
correct than wash. 

The head {see Fig. 45) should be inked first, the hair indicated 
by a few curved strokes following the waves, the features only 
outlined with the exception of the eyes, for these a black spot 
is made for the pupil and a line drawn rotmd for the iris, of course, 
shaped according to the direction in which the eyes are looking. 
In outline figures, the mouth is sometimes blacked in but this 
is not the best way ; the upper lip and lower one are better drawn 
separately, each with the correct form. 




Fig. 45. — Line drawing with detail 



LINE DRAWING 67 

The face proving satisfactory, the dress can next be lined in. 
Always work on the left side first ; the effect is obtained more 
quickly and there is not the danger of smudging the lines by 
touching these with the hand in drawing. If the subject chosen 
for the first line sketch is a costume, the student can outline the 
entire figure, including hands and feet, and when this is dry, he can 
add the inside details such as the coat, collar, belt, seams, buttons, 
the whole kept to simple lines ; the drawing will be more effective 
without any shading. Before proceeding to more elaborate line, 
the student can try the effect of conveying ideas by these simple 
lines. I have seen a figure having the appearance of walking 
in a high wind and this impresssion was entirely produced by the 
way the lines were drawn in sweeping curves as if the dress was 
billowing out, blown by a March wind or autumn gale. {See 
Fig. 46.) 

Illustration (See Figs. 43, 53 and 57.) 

Newspaper line with some shading naturally follows simple 
line, the preliminary work is the same, the pencil sketch and the 
inked outline, but for the quick printing and block-making 
needed for newspaper work, the pen and ink must be carried 
further. The outside line must be much stronger and very black 
lines tmder the sleeves and under the coat or jumper ; lines also 
showing the folds of the skirt are usually put in and even a few 
on the face, by the eyes, under the hat brim, on the hair and by 
the neck. 

Even with these extra lines, the drawing must be clean and 
straightforward with all the lines sharp and refined. Nothing 
is more fatal to a reproduction in a newspaper than weak, niggling 
lines. 

MASSES OF BLACK 
Very fine lines and masses of black are illustrated by these 
drawings by Erte from Harper' sBazaar. They are quite xmique, and 
although several EngUsh artists make use of this black no one 
does it in quite the same way. At first sight the term eccentric is 
usually appUed to them, but when the details are examined any 
criticism is turned into admiration for the wonderful delicacy 
of line. [See Fig. 51.) 

B 



68 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 



In these Erte also displays so much imagination that the dis- 
paraging remarks about fashion drawing can easily be silenced. 
To supplement the simple lines a good effect is obtained by 




Fig. 46. — Simple Lines 

blacking in certain shadows. Some advertisements show this 
very strongly. Begin by lining in as in the first figure, making 
the lines thicker and stronger, then with a fine brush put in quite 
black shadows, the shadow side of the sleeve and coat following 



UNE DRAWING 



69 




Fig. 47. — Line Drawing using Mechanical Tint 




Fig. 48. — Showing Shawl and Embroidery 



LINE DRAWING 



71 



the shape of the folds and creases, the triangtdar bit under the 
re vers, the edge of the coat against the skirt. If this is followed 
out a good strong drawing will be produced. 




Fig. 49. — Method of indicating Serge 
ILLUSTRATION 

Your client, however, wishes you to show clearly to his customers 
that the dress offered for sale is made in silk, serge {see Fig. 49), 
woven or brocade material, etc., and it is impossible to do this 
unless the drawing is elaborated. {See Figs. 54 and 56). The 



72 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 



preliminary drawing must be just as careful as for the outline figure 
and all the principal lines should be^drawn in. Then before begin- 
ning the other part think first how you must convey the idea of 




Fig. 50. — Woollen check and material in Lint. 

different materials. I can give some directions and the student 
must practise these until he can build up his own style on these 
foundations. For silk (see Fig. 55) draw straight lines broken 
where the light falls on the top of the fold, and in the lighter part 



LINE DRAWING 



73 




Fig. 51. — Pen Drawing by Erii 



74 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 




Fig. 52. — Study of Detail 



LINE DRAWING 75 

draw little lines rather resembling forked lightning ; this is for light 
silk. For black or dark silk thick lines close together should be 
drawn and the folds blacked in with a brush, leaving the high 
lights, but against these the line should be wavy, not straight. 
A knitted golf coat {see Fig. 50) or woollen dress should be made 
to look thick, and this is done by lines each side the fold nearly 
horizontal, and the fold left wide to show the woolly substance. 
In some cases the client will request the artist to show that the 
jumper or coat is made of Shetland wool, and zigzag lines joined 
to loops have to be put in to satisfy his requirements. 

A black fur cloak can be put in quite black with little lines round 
the edge to show it is hair. Velvet again is expressed by masses 
of black and narrow high lights left white. 

Another great master of line is the French artist Soulie {see 
Fig. 53), so different from Erte that it is difficult to realise that 
both use the humble pen and ink. 

Soulie's drawings are strong and virile ; there is no attempt at the 
merely pretty pretty and obviously sketched from life. The dresses 
are quite original and show the trend of fashion in France. 

It is interesting to see that the reproduction of Soulie's picture 
in the Salon of 1885 might be a fashion plate, so much it reflects 
the mode of the day. 

There is another style which I will call the "Souli6." This is 
neither outline nor elaborated in the way I have just described ; 
it is clever and the drawing good, the penmanship shows great 
freedom, and velvet, silk and lace are, you might say, dashed in, 
but if the drawings are examined the student will find method in 
this seeming carelessness. The lines follow the drapery, lace and 
chiffon are drawn with light, thin lines which show exactly what 
they are meant for. 

The best way is to try all these methods and then specialise in 
one. Every artist is known by his style, and without seeing the 
signature we can generally tell it is a Barribal, a Shepperson, a 
Lucie Attwell ; the difference is unmistakeable. Be original ! 
Don't be a poor imitation ; study from all these good artists and 
then strike out a line for yourself. {See Figs. 57 and 58.) 

If advertisements are examined it will be seen that artists have 
made experiments with the pen more or less effectively, some 
very clever with a touch of genius, others bordering on the eccentric 




Fig. 53. — Drawing by SoulH 



LINE DRAWING 



77 



and of no permanent value. There was a sketch in an old magazine 
to advertise silk stockings, it was carried out in wash and line and 
should perhaps have come under that heading, but it was essentially 
the clever manipulation of line which gave it the unique distinction. 




P*S- 54- — Brocade in Line 



56. — Tweed 



The whole drawing with the exception of the face, hands, and silk 
stockings was entirely drawn in perpendicular lines. The picture 
consisted of two sitting figures, a man and a girl, obviously in a 
carriage, as there are windows and a suggestion of landscape outside. 




Fig. 58. — Newspaper Advertisement: Furs in Line and Mechanical Tint 



8o 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 




Fig. 59. — Line drawing by C, Roller 



LINE DRAWING 



8i 



and it is the wonderful way in which these different objects, the 
girl's hat, the man's hat, her dress, his suit, their shoes, the 
cushioned seat, his stick and her hanging bag, and a trolly are seen 
through the window. The detail is shown by white spaces where 
the straight line pauses and then is carried on. The shadows are 
expressed by the line being made very much darker and broader, 
but still straight. 

In Harrod's advertisement illustration and" the one from "ly'Art 
et la Mode " (Fig. 57), the student will probably think that they 
are wash and line drawings, but this is not so ; the printer has 
shaded them by a mechanical process. 




Fig. 60. — Details in Line 



As I said before, the face, hands and silk stockings are carefully 
washed in. 

DETAIL IN LINE 

I think it is more difficult in sMie ways to draw lace in line. 
There is no infallible recipe and it is a question of experimenting ; 
new patterns are constantly brought out and the artist is expected 
to depict Irish crochet, Valenciennes, torchon, filet lace — whichever 
holds the passing fancy. {See Fig. 60.) The same applies to 
materials, although we are told there is nothing new under the 
sun, which may be true, but if we are asked to design a dress of 
organdi we may wonder what it is like, and then be told by some 
Victorian that it is only book muslin imder another name. Many 
of the illustrations I am giving here are the result of my own 



S2 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 



experiments, and I shall only give you those that have been 
successful. 

For fine lace the flowers, leaves or design must be lightly drawn 
in and outlined with very fine lines. The mesh should be shown 




Fig. 6i. — Detail in Line : Celanese 

by a few crossed lines, but not too many or the lace will look hard 
and stiff. Extra lines should also be drawn to show the way the 
lace falls; these follow the folds and are drawn in a different 
direction to those of the mesh. Thick, coarse, white lace is better 
indicated by the design left white and the square holes in the mesh 




Fig. 62. 

This White Fur Coat drawn by Miss Hilda Russell is a very good example, 

shewing the thichness and depth with very few Hnti. 



84 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 



blacked in, the linen threads of the lace showing up white on the 
black. 

FURS 
Illustrations {See Fig. 62) 

There is a great art in drawing furs in line. Wash lends itself 
so easily to the fluf finess, richness and depth in a fur, and in line 
it is almost impossible to get the same effect, but much may be 




Fig. 63. — Fur in Line 

done to give this softness ; too often a drawing of fur is more like 
porcupine quills than anything else, or the bristles in an old broom. 
It will require much practice and much study of the skins. Note 
the way the hair grows, the length, the soft, delicate little crinkles 
and folds, then draw them in pencil until you gain sureness of 
touch, and not only sureness of touch, but knowledge of the way 
the fur divides and the direction of the hairs. I will take two 
or three usual furs. (See Fig. 63.) Black skunk has usually 



LINE DRAWING 85 

three or four strands, the hairs forming these separate pieces 
overlap each other, with light lines between, leaving high lights 
to show the glossiness of the fur ; ermine is very soft and winds 
round the neck in soft little folds, even on the plain part you find 




Fig. 64. — Fur Coal'showing method of drawing in Line 

uneven creases, which are put in quite black in the deepest fold, 
but with very light touches for the shadows. (See Fig. 65.) A 
row of tails helps to break the monotony of the surface. Natural 
musquash and squirrel have much the same treatment, but in 




fig. 65. — Aitothtr txmmpU 0/ Pur in Lint 




Fig. 66. — Line Drawing from " The Lady ' 




Fig. 67. — Line Drawing with Mechanical Tint 



89 




^^^i^^ 



Fig. 68. 
Wash and Line by Renee Maude. 



LINE DRAWING 91 

these the coat or stole is made with a number of skins, and it is 
by observing where these sections come and if the dividing line 
is light or dark and how the hair comes over the line that a good 
result is obtained. (See Fig. 64.) 

Seal is the easiest fur to show, as the ink is put on in black masses, 
with broken lines where the light touches the fur. Pony is like 
watered silk, with more lines for hair. Black fox has sections of 
deep black, and the hair is much longer than bear or skunk. 

In dealing with the golf coats, very thick camel hair ones I had 
to sketch had to be treated just like fur, as they almost had that 
appearance. {See Fig. 50.) 

Draw the rib of the feather with two lines slightly apart at the 
base, tapering off to a point at the tip. From this centre rib draw 
fine curved lines, curling at the end of each one. In the chapter 
on millinery I shall probably deal with this subject again. 

There are at least three styles of line work for the face, and I 
must impress upon the student that the whole figure must be in 
harmony, so very often the face is seen in outUne and the dress 
with all the shadows drawn in. So if you are drawing the figtire 
in simple hues, the head must be the same. 

The second method is to emphasise the principal features by a 
few lines of shadow by the eyes, under the chin, and by the nose 
and the mouth. 

Faces sketched with expression, modeUing and, in fact, the whole 
of the head drawn in detail, with as many lines as the artist thinks 
necessary, forms the third method. (See Figs. 66 and 67.) 

CORRECTIONS 
Before leaving the subject of line I will deal with making 
corrections, as no one is infallible. If good paper is used, Bristol 
boards or hot-pressed drawing paper, it is easy to erase any super- 
fluous and wrong line by careftdly rubbing it out with typewriter's 
ink eraser. Do not erase only in one direction, as it tends to take 
off the surface too much and leaves a groove in the paper, but 
rub it gently both ways, and you will find the paper almost uninjured 
and you can then ink in fresh lines. This also requires care, as 
the paper takes the ink a little thicker and blacker. If the 
correction is required on the face and perhaps only a small line 
is to be altered, it can be painted out with white. 



V 

LINE AND WASH 

It will be noticed that many of the best papers use line and wash 
for their illustrations. I think this method bristles with difficulties 
even more than plain wash and simple line. For those who do 
not understand the term line and wash I must explain that they 
are line drawings, with some shadows and details put in with 
wash. Sometimes the entire dress has a flat tint all over, in others 
the underdress is washed in and the overdress, tunic and details 
carried out in line. (See Fig. 68.) At first this does not seem 
difficult until the artist tries the effect, and then the result is sad 
and leaves him humble indeed. The accompanying illustrations 
will give some idea of the use to be made of this combination of 
methods. 

At one time the artist was pinned down to one medium and 
not allowed to combine the two. A wash drawing was begun 
and finished in wash without ink lines added, but reproduction 
has made such great strides, that, given a really good drawing, 
it does not matter if it is in chalk, line, wash or all three, the result 
is good. 

In the old illustrations the artist had to make his drawing on 
wood blocks or steel plates, and he was handicapped by having 
to draw everything the reverse way. Now copper blocks are made 
direct from the drawing. 

{See Figs. 70 and 75.) It is desirable to outline the drawing 
first, using, of course, waterpoof Indian ink in the same way as 
in the preliminary stages of a line drawing. The hair need only 
be lightly touched, as a good effect of hair can be given with very 
few lines and an almost flat wash. When the eyes, mouth, nose, 
etc., are drawn and the ink is dry, a flat wash of black can be 
put over the face, taking care it is not too dark, as the artist does 
not wish to give a negro appearance to the head. When this wash 



93 




Good Illustrations of 
Line and Wash. 



70 



95 




Fig. 72. 
Examples in Wash and Line. 



IvINE AND WASH 97 

is also dry, extra lines can then be put in to give expression and 
emphasis, the lips darkened, a deeper shadow under the eyebrows, 
a few lines under the chin and on the dark side of the neck. If 
the face is washed over, the neck and arms should be done at the 
same time, so that there should not be any inequalities in the 
work. 

It is also permissible to leave the head in quite simple lines 
and only use the wash for the dress and background. A very 
smart drawing can be made for a millinery head or for a stole 
or scarf, by sketching in the hat and scarf in line and putting 
a wash on the face. A chiffon taffeta dress with side wings of lace 
should have the taffeta washed in and the lace done in very 
sketchy lines to give a light, transparent look to it ; a few lines on 
the taffeta must be added to bring it into harmony with the rest 
of the drawing. The artist will see that each dress, hat or coat 
must have the wash and line arranged to bring out the best points 
in each. In these wash and line drawings, much use is made of 
the masses of black such as I described in the chapter on line. 

{See Figs. 72 and 73.) French and American magazines vary 
slightly, but speaking broadly, the wash is principally to emphasise 
contrasts of colour or material. 

The principal snag which must be avoided is the danger of 
too many lines or too much paint so that the result is not a line 
and wash, but a line or wash, so I must impress upon the student 
to look at the drawing and quite decide upon the amount of line 
and where the wash will be most effective. This can only be done 
by practice ; there is no hard and fast rule, and each must work 
it out in his or her own way. 

I think the use of masses of black with line and wash is very 
artistic, much more so than in the sharp contrast with line alone. 
A figure in a delicate gown of some airy fabric washed over in a 
light tone against a black curtain is charming, but if the figure 
is all white against black it may be striking but is frequently 
more startling than artistic. In line and wash, the figure may be 
all white, the background painted with a light, thin wash. 

{See Fig. 72.) The overdress and the hat are in wash, the rest 
of the figure in plain line. 

{See Figs. 69 and 71.) The two figures from the Sketch have a 
light wash all over, finished with fine lines for the shading and detail. 



98 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

{See Fig. 74.) Chalk and wash seem to follow naturally on the 
method I have just described and come into the same chapter. 
Get a good conte crayon from any of the art shops and sharpen 
to a fine point. Sketch the figure in and shade with lines, dose 
together in the shadows and further apart in the lighter portions. 
There are generally two ways of using materials, and in chalk 
and wash some artists wash in the figure and some of the detail 
and finish up with the chalk. This is a good method and does not 
mess up the drawing as the student can see where to place the lines 
in the conte. If all the drawing is sketched in first in conte, it is 
easily rubbed and soon loses its slick and clean appearance, leaving 
a smudged and altogether unsatisfactory sketch. On the face, 
the modelling begun in the wash can be very much improved 
by the assistance of the chalk shading, and where the lines are close 
together it has almost the appearance of being stippled, but this 
old-fashioned way of shading should be avoided and only used 
as a last resource ; it irresistibly reminds one of the elegant dark 
heads executed by the young ladies educated at a select seminary 
and belongs to the pretty-pretty age of art. Stippling, which 
consists of tiny strokes or dots, is useful to rectify a small, uneven 
patch in a drawing where there has been some rubbing-out or 
a fault in the paper, but otherwise when much of this has been 
done the drawing looks stiff and stilted. Hair is very successful 
in chalk, and many artists, among them Stanley Davies, draw 
the heads for the hairdressers' advertisements with conte. 

The background should have very bold strokes, some very 
black and dose together — in fact, massed for the very dark, with 
lighter ones on the outside. Do not cross-hatch, a better result 
is obtained by drawing them all in one direction from thick to 
thin. 

Mr. Tom Purvis is certainly an acquisition to the ranks of 
fashion artists, and with that of a few others, his work should 
go far to abolish the idea that a real artist does not paint fashions. 
Fig. 74 is a fine example of his drawing in chalk and wash. 
His sketches are finished pictures, and if of any other subject would 
readily find a place in art exhibitions. 

Inddentally I may say I see far worse sketches in the R. A. 
and R. I. than many fashion artists turn out. 

Some of Mr. Tom Purvis's paintings are in oil, but this medium 




m 



as 
W 
P-, 



o 

OS 

M 
d Q 






O 
M 
a. 
< 

w 

Q 
O 
O 

o 




Fig. 74. 
Chalk and Wash Drawing by Tom Purvis. 



LINE AND WASH 103 

I should not recommend to the student. It requires special 
training and is not so easy to manage as water colour or black 
and white. 

SPATTER WORK 

(See Fig. 76.) As this method is generally employed in con- 
junction with line or line and wash, I am dealing with it here. 
It is sometimes applied to backgrounds and sometimes on the dress 
or accessories, such as chairs and couches. Like stippling it dates 
back to the time when young ladies made blotters for bazaars 
and ornamented them by placing dried ferns on a cardboard 
and with a fine tooth-brush spattering ink over the white part ; 
the ferns were then removed and a pattern of the fern showed 
up against the background. Spatter drawings for fashions are done 
in the same way. If a rough tweed coat or costume has to be drawn 
for an advertisement, to get the texture of the tweed quickly 
a piece of rather stiff paper, semi-transparent, is placed over the 
figure, on this trace the outline of the costume or coat, cut this 
out carefully and replace the paper on the drawing, which must 
be entirely covered except the part to be spattered ; it should 
be fastened down with pins to prevent it slipping. (See Fig. 76.) 
Indian ink or process black with water should be poured into 
a saucer, getting the required thinness and sufficient quantity to 
finish the drawing without waiting for a further supply. The 
drawing and paper should be held down firmly with the hand. 
A fine toothbrush is then dipped in the ink or paint and shaken 
over the drawing. Great care must be taken. If the black is too 
liquid it wiU splash and blot instead of sprinkling Uttle dots over 
the surface. If any part is desired darker, the first application 
of the ink must be left to dry ; a second spattering can then be 
tried. An attractive sketch can be made of a winter scene of 
skating figtu-es, wearing white wool dresses and white furs. The 
background of grey sky can be put in by spatter work, the figures 
in line standing out against it. 

Of course these and similar methods are used generally to 
get a little variety, although for a rough material it is very effective 
and gives a better suggestion of tweed and similar cloth than covering 
it with little dots made by the pen or brush. 

I must also write about drawing with the brush. This reproduces 



104 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

very well for newspaper illustrations and has the appearance of 
stencilling. If the student has mastered line and wash this should 
be comparatively easy. I mentioned a lining-in brush earlier 
in the chapter on line ; these can be obtained at any art shop. 
They are most useful for lettering, which is almost a separate 
branch of art, and also for blacking in shadows. 

The particular use of lining-in brushes I wish to point out is 
the facility with which a drawing can be begun and finished with 
the brush, given, of course, knowledge of drawing and essential 
lines ; this knowledge I am hoping the student will gain by study 
and practice. I cannot advise him to draw with the brush without 
foundation lines, but these are only for guidance. The figure 
when drawn is outlined with the lining-in brush in the same way 
in which the simple pen lines are drawn. This outline will be 
thick, and if spaces are left at intervals will, as I said, look like 
a stencil, or if the lines are unbroken a strong convincing drawing 
is shown. 

AEROGRAPH 

The Aerograph is very useful for backgrotmds and fine shading, 
and it is sometimes difficult to detect where it has been used; 
it is only by the evenness or absence of brush marks that it can 
be noticed at all. {See Figs. 77 and 78.) 

By courtesy of the Aerograph Company a few hints are given 
for the use of the Aerograph from their booklet. The Artist and 
the Aerograph : — 

TO BEGIN :— HOW TO MAKE STROKES 

Hold the Aerograph in the manner indicated in the above 
photograph. Note particularly that the hand holding the instru- 
ment must be in motion at the time when the finger-button is 
pressed to start the spraying, and must continue its movement 
until after the flow of colour is stopped at the end of the stroke, 
otherwise surplus colour will be deposited at the ends of each line. 

GRADUATED TINTS AND SHADINGS 

In making these it is important that the strokes should follow 
the erection of the contours, e.g., in shading the curve of a cheek 
in a portrait, the strokes should follow the contour of the cheek. 



io6 





Fig. 75. 
Wash and Line with White Detail. 



Fig. 76. 
Spatter Drawing. 



io8 




Fi(.. 77. 




Ahko(;kaphs. 



LINE AND WASH 109 

To prepare graduated tints, practise starting with a dark edge 
or line and gradually working away from it, raising the Aerograph 
further from the surface of the paper as you extend the tint away 
from the dark edge. 

FLAT TINTS 
To make flat tints it is necessary to apply the colour in parallel 
strokes partly overlapping each other, because when the colour 
is discharged from the Aerograph it is somewhat deeper in the 
centre of the spray than on the outer edge. Do not attempt to 
make an even tint with a circular movement, as this causes a 
cloudy or lumpy effect. 

PREPARING AND MIXING COLOURS 

It is not necessary to mix the colours on a palette, as the tints 
may be modified by adding to them in the colour receptacle of 
the instrument. The colour also need not be of the exact thickness 
or depth required, as with a colour of full strength the most delicate 
tints can be made with the Aerograph, so deUcate indeed they 
may be quite invisible and only become visible by repeating the 
spray of colour. Moist colours are preferable to dry, as with the 
latter there is risk of undissolved particles getting into and clogging 
the instrument. 

If there is a group of heads on one board planned for a page 
in a magazine, spaces are left between them which give an 
unfinished look ; if these spaces are shaded by the Aerograph it 
pulls the whole drawing together. 

The parts of the drawing which do not require shading should 
be masked as in spatter, as there is always danger of the paint 
spreading and spoiling the drawing. It is possible with skill to 
get fine gradations of shade and a very even surface ; spatter is 
much more irregular and would not be so useful. 

The Aerograph is often used for shoes ; it is almost impossible 
for the brush to get the same smooth effect. Of course spatter. 
Aerograph and rub-out paper are all artificial helps, and it is 
quite possible to design and paint fashions without having recourse 
to any of them. 

Chalk papers which are covered with lines in squares were much 
used at one time. An ink or chalk drawing was made on this 




I 

iJ5 






S 
^ 






LINE AND WASH ill 

paper and completely finished up, the high lights were then 
scratched out, giving a brilliant appearance, much better than 
masses of white paint. Grey and brown paper can also be used, 
the high lights put in with body colour. 

SILHOUETTE 
{See Fig. 79.) 

Silhouette drawings are very attractive, and not only that, 
but are quite adequate in their representation of style and lace. 
Silhouette portraits were very much in vogue some 100 years ago, 
and when employed occasionally for illustration, form a pleasing 
change from the ordinary advertisement. 



112 



VI 

CHILDREN'S FASHIONS AND LINGERIE 

Daintiness seems the right word to tise for the style required 
for sketching anything belonging to children or for the ethereal 
garments generally designated " lingerie." 

CHILDREN 

{See Figs. 8i and 82.) It needs a special gift to be able to draw 
children in natural positions, and if the student can specialise in 
this he will find no lack of work. There is a constant demand 
but very little supply, so if really good sketches can be offered 
to the advertising managers the artist will have as many orders 
as he is able to carry through. 

I must emphasise what I said at the beginning that there must 
be life in the pose. Children are never still, and it is the ability 
to suggest action that makes the difference between stiff wooden 
little people and the real children of Gladys Peto, Miss Hocknell 
and others. Miss Peto's drawings are extremely dainty, and she 
places her masses of black where they will have the best effect. 
The surroundings of windows, cushions, curtains, etc., seem 
just right. 

Miss Hocknell's children are beautifully drawn, the little garments 
principally in line, with a very slight wash on the face and hands. 
(See Fig. 86.) 

I am not now considering the children depicted in some of 
the up-to-date fashion magazines. These make a certain appeal 
by their smartness. 

It will not be necessary for me to recapitulate how to paint 
in wash, line or chalk ; the student should be conversant with the 
different methods before attempting this most difficult branch 
of art. I think, generally speaking, that line or line and wash 



"3 




Fig. 8i. 
Children from Vogue. 




Fig. 82. 
Children from Vogue. 



CHILDREN'S FASHIONS AND LINGERIE 115 

are better for drawings of children than wash alone, as it tends 
to give a heavy look to the figure. Numbers of pencil sketches 
must be made in the same way as the beginning ones. Make 




Fig. 83. — Smart child's dress 

rapid pencil sketches of children walking, playing, running, 
dancing, etc., in fact in every position you can think of. {See 
Figs. 83, 84 and 85.) These should be from life, if possible. 
The children of friends are better than professional models, as 



ii6 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 



the movements are freer and more spontaneous. I think one 
or two children in smocks would be easy for a first attempt, 
drawn very carefully and then lined in with ink. If the hair is 
bobbed, notice how it curves under at the back and is cut short 
over the forehead ; draw the ink lines to show these points. If 
the hair is curled, draw half-circle lines and little tendrils of hair 



See Name 
on Selvedge 




The cotton fabric that cleanses easily 

Fig. 84. — Child with Toys 




coming from them. A great danger to be avoided is making 
the face too old ; try to get the lovely curves of childhood, a perky 
little nose, upper lip sticking out in a most fascinating manner, 
full under lip tucked in at the comers, dimpled chin and wide 
open eyes, or the long lashes down, most intent on the mechanism 
of a toy. Hands rather short and plump with creases at the wrist, 
and the legs long and slender. 
The smocks may be ornamented with feather-stitching or 



CHILDREN'S FASHIONS AND LINGERIE 117 

smocked with a contrasting colour or embroidered with rows of 
animals ; in any case the great aim is simplicity. 

The Hercules group (see Fig. 85) is worth studying for the contrast 
in the dress : a plain one in the middle, with a figured one on the left 
and spotted on the right. 




/S/- VJesh/and i^epr^ 
Fig. 85. — Children in Pen Drawing 



The child holding cherries in check, the touches of black in the 
kitten and the gollywog strengthen the sketch. 

A party frock is a more difficult proposition and much more 
detail is needed, such as insertions of lace and almost invariably 
ribbon run through slots of embroidery, sashes floating out, made 
into little rosettes, a big bow of ribbon on the hair. It may sound 



Ii8 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

complicated, but gives great scope for daintiness and for the 
sketching of fairy-like fabrics. (See Figs. 87-88.) 

I have pointed out the danger of making children look too 
old ; there are other pitfalls to be avoided and one is the different 
ages — I might call them the four ages of childhood. The infant, 
the child, the schoolgirl and the maiden. It is much safer, if a dress 
is given you to sketch, to ask for what age it is intended, but often 
the various garments are sent with no guide but the artist's 
knowledge and common sense. A maid's dress is fairly easy, 
but there is small difference between a three-year-old and a 
seven-year-old, and this difficulty is increased by the very skimpy 
skirts of the seven-year-old, which are not much longer than one 
for a younger child. I cannot give an infallible rule; there are 
touches about a very little one's dress which are left out when 
they are a few years older. 

The advice I wish to give is that the figure should be appropriate 
to the frock — don't put an old, heavy-looking dress upon a slender 
graceful figure. The same advice applies to a maid's dress — smart 
and in the prevailing mode, without losing the young girlish 
appearance. 

The artist is often called upon to sketch a games dress ; these 
are generally worn by girls from nine to fourteen or upwards. 
The style does not vary much. Some rather like a girl guides' or 
sailor dress, others in the djhibbah style, square-necked with 
long box-pleats and girdle of cord. The dress in serge or cloth 
material, it is without sleeves and worn over a blouse of contrasting 
shade and thinner material such as brown cloth over tussore silk, 
or blue serge over white. These dresses must have shoes to 
correspond, thick brogues or gym shoes. 

Before leaving the subject of shoes, which is very important 
and might have a chapter devoted to it, we must consider shoes 
for very little children. These have ankle straps and quite rounded 
toes, and are made of very soft leather, brown or black for outdoor 
wear and white kid for house or parties. Children a little older 
still have similar shoes and the style does not change until about 
seven or eight. They are then more like grown-ups but with 
flat heels and rounder toes. Maid's shoes are another matter 
very much in the fashion except for games, when special shoes 
or boots are worn. With the shoes comes the question of suitable 




Fig. 86. 
Ch.'Vkacteristic Drawing of Children by Miss Hocknell. 




Fig. 87. 
Another Style of Children's Drawing. 



CHILDREN'S FASHIONS AND LINGERIE 



121 



stockings. Children wear socks until they are nine or ten, plain 
or striped to match the dress. Older girls have thin silk stockings 
for dress occasions and cashmere for school ; black or brown look 
the best and are much smarter than fancy colours. 

I did not deal with children's hats in the chapter on Millin ery, 
as they are usually included in a children's department. The same 




Fig. 88.— Dainty Children 



note of simplicity will be seen in looking at children's hats. Little 
girls look perfectly sweet in the small poke bonnet shape with 
narrow ribbon twisted round the crown and ends hanging down 
at the back, or a Tam-o'-shanter of never-failing popularity 
which seems to suit any face from three years old to, shall I say, 
thirty? 



122 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

LINGERIE 

(See Fig. 94.) I have put lingerie and children's fashions in the 
same chapter as they both require dainty treatment. The materials 
are usually thin and lend themselves to delicate line drawing and 
also to the strong contrasts in the black and white of a good wash. 

Lace, broderie Anglaise, silk embroidery and many varieties 
of detail, some of which I have described, I hope have been practised, 
as this knowledge will now prove of immense use. 

First I must speak of the drawing. This must be, if possible, 
more accurate than one intended for a costume or dress ; the arms 
and neck are generally bare and bad drawing is easily detected, so 
the student will see that extra care must be taken. 

LINGERIE IN WASH 

I will deal with lingerie in wash. The whole drawing must be 
kept light, and only in the principal shadows much black is used. 
Although white (Chinese or Albanine) is indispensable, it should 
not be put on until the finishing touches are required, it is always 
better to leave the white paper — of course I mean for the material — 
the trimming is a different matter, and white may be put on at 
once if it is necessary for the pattern. {See Fig. 89.) 

If a nightdress of crepe-de-Chine has to be painted, wash it in 
as you would a crepe-de-Chine evening dress, and draw a very- 
pretty face with boudoir cap. Design the cap if you have not one sent 
with the nightdress. These caps are a great asset and make an 
otherwise ordinary sketch into an artistic one. If possible have 
a sitting figure, you can get better folds into the drapery and 
also show the trimming, which is generally on the top part round 
the neck and sleeves. A standing figure can be made to look 
well, but students frequently get a Greek statue effect, I 
suppose the result of their studies from the antique, and the 
folds resemble those on a sculptured figure and do not convey 
the impression of lightness and graceful lines. {See Fig. 90.) 
Wash in all the shadows, keeping the very darks for the folds 
under the arm and where the material turns over, or for the tiny 
folds into a ribbon belt. Although there should be a light and 
dark side to the figure, as the Ungerie is generally white or in light 
colours, it is found better to paint the whole figure light against 



123 




Fig. 89. 

Wash Drawing OF Petticoat, entirely Lace, with 

Ribbons looped over it. 



126 




Fig. 90. 
Rest Gown, beautifully Painted, of Embroidered Velvet 

AND Georgette. 



CHILDREN'S FASHIONS AND WNGERIE 127 

a dark background, as the shadow side of white is as a rule lighter 
than its surroundings. (See Fig. 92.) 

If it is a single figure in petticoat or nightdress the effect 
can be obtained by a dressing gown thrown over one shoulder 
and one arm and held up on the other side by the hand, this 
will add to the artistic appearance of the drawing and obviate 
the necessity of running in black against the figure, which if not 
carefully done will sometimes spoil the entire drawing. Where 
there are several figures this method of washing in black must 
be used to a certain extent, and two white figures with the black 
well placed and vignetted off is very effective. 

For some catalogues, and almost invariably for advertisements, 
line is used for drawing lingerie or line and wash. The fineness 
of the material seems to be shown by fine line almost better than 
in wash, and this method has been employed with good results, 
as shown by the accompanjdng illustrations. {See Fig. 93.) 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

In studying line drawings of lingerie notice how the lines are 
finished off with dots, the line of a fold instead of ending abruptly 
being continued by tiny dots, which adds to the delicate effect. 
Lines ending in a little curve like a pothook also indicate the 
thinness of the material. {See Fig. 91.) 

In these drawings black is very much used to throw up the 
figures, but must not be made to hide bad drawing ; it may be 
overdone, and instead of giving this effect it makes the drawing 
heavy and overloaded. A little, however, is most useful, and a 
black dressing table against which is a standing figure in night- 
dress, pyjamas or dressing gown gives just the right touch of 
contrast. Some of the figured or striped materials used for pyjamas 
or rest gowns do not require this setting, and should be drawn with 
a backing of plain paper and placed against another figure in a 
white garment without any pattern on it. {See Fig. 92.) 

DETAIL AND TRIMMING 

The detail and trimming in lingerie must also have the lightness 
and daintiness I have described as essential for the materials in 
wash and line. In wash drawing the lace should as a nile be 



128 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 




Fig. 91. — Line Drawing of Pnncess Slip with only the simple essential line 



I30 




Fig. 92. 
Lingerie in Wash and Line. 



CHILDREN'S FASHIONS AND LINGERIE 



131 



qviite defined — that is every leaf and petal shown, the ground-work 
blacked in, and the pattern drawn with Process white and Albanine. 
Many West End houses, however, will allow the artist to indicate 




P'g- 93- — Two Figures showing black in background 



the pattern in the high lights and lose it in the shadows ; this takes 
away any stiffness which may creep in if the whole of the detail 
is mapped out. A certain amount of impressionism is allowable. 
I, 



132 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 



The same stiffness must be avoided in line drawing almost more 
than in wash. I think the reason for this is that as lace has to 
be drawn with black lines, if there is much on the garment it may 
make it look as if it were white trimmed with black, so the pattern 
must be spread out ; that is when the lace has ten flowers across the 
yoke. To make it look lacy only three or four would be put in, 
as when it is reduced these would be qviite close together ; if more 
are drawn and crowded, it may come out a patch of black with 
no distinctness. 

CORSETS 

Corsets are very, very difficult to do ; first, any fault in the 
drawing of the figure is shown when the corset is fitted on to the 
outline ; if the figure vmderneath is out of proportion, the bones of 
the corset will come in the wrong place. A dumpy, fat figure 
gives a clumsy appearance and alters the position of the waist, 
and on a very attenuated figure the same corset would look short 
and the bones awkwardly placed. 

The waistline of the corset should be taken as a guide. Put it 
on a dummy and draw each line in the right direction, giving them 
the correct curve over the hips ; the lace trimmings, sUk, embroidery 
painted or lined in, and the eyes and eyelet holes in the busks, 
also the suspenders. Some lingerie is shown on the figure above 
and below the corset. 

The whole aim of an advertisement is to show the goods offered 
to the greatest advantage, and the artist must always make an 
effort not only to be accurate, but also to give the best effect to 
anjrthing he has to draw. 




Fig. 94. — Lingerie 




P*g- 95- — ■^"'« drawing, showing treatment of feathers 



VII 

MILLINERY 

This is a very important branch of fashion art just as it is a subject 
of most profound interest to the majority of women. Of course, 
there are always some who are, or pretend to be, entirely indifferent 
as to whether the hat they are wearing suits them or not, but 
it is difficult to beUeve in the sincerity of this sentiment ; one 
is tempted to think it is conceit and the idea that whatever they 
choose must be " vastly becoming," as Pepys would say. 

The artist has a difficult task, and if he approaches it thinking 
that he can paint a head and hat quite easily (as there wiU be no 
hands, no feet, and no thinking out an attractive grouping), he 
will soon find out that his ideas are mistaken — he has jumped to 
conclusions too soon. 

First of all, the artist will have three people to please : the 
printer or art agent, the client, and last, but not least, the head 
milliner. I feel that she should be printed in capitals, as her 
decision generally over-rules the mere man and is final. 



134 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGNJ 

Before, however, reaching this point there are several mile- 
stones to pass. It is most essential that the artist should paint 
a pretty face, one quite satisfied with the hat she is wearing ; if 
the student has some friend, smart and attractive, some studies 
can be made from life, with the features most carefully drawn 
and modelled. In the chapter on wash drawing I have touched 
upon this, but when the whole value of the drawing rests upon 
the head alone, without any accessories of dress to take the 
attention, it will be at once seen that the most meticulous care 
must be given to the painting. 

METHOD 

The first instructions for drawing the head in pencil and 
preparing the board should be followed — that is, washing over 
the pencil with plain water before beginning to paint. The artist 
should get someone to wear the hat for her to sketch, as it must 
fit on the head, and not only fit but look smart (see Fig. 96). 

Begin with the hat and lightly wash it in, keeping a light and 
a dark side ; then paint the shadow side of the face, the eyes 
and the principal features. If the artist is so unfortunate as to spoil 
the face by making the eyes not quite level or by getting hard 
lines in the preliminary wash, scrap it and take a fresh board and 
b^n again. This seems rather drastic, but it is far better than 
patching up, which should only be done if it is what we call rush 
work and the printer's boy waiting on the doorstep. 

Figs. 96, 97, 98. These represent the hat in the three stages 
in the same way as the dress. I must indicate, however, that in 
the preliminary sketch the hat is generally drawn without the 
face, as there is not time at the shop or warehouse. The rough-out 
is brought back to the studio and a suitable face is then drawn 
to fit the hat. I should recommend a few very sketchy indications 
of features. Mark out where the eyes would come and the chin. 
That is a very good guide for size ; it is much more difficult to fit 
a face to a hat than a hat to a face. 

HAT MATERIAI^ 

Notice if the hat is silk or velvet {see Fig. 99), and paint it to 
look Uke these materials ; then, again, the hat may be of straw 



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MILLINERY 141 

and the sketch must show the kind of straw, tagel, raffia, basket, 
coarse or fine. I will describe an ordinary staw hat trimmed with 
ribbon and cherries. When the lights and shadows have been 
washed in, leaving the detail and also the face nearly finished, 
the straw can then be defined. Draw lines round the crown, keeping 
a certain distance between. When these lines are drawn, touch 
the edge with albanine in the lightest part and process white in 
the shadow. If the straw is black, process white only should be 
used. This is for fine straw. 

COARSE OR BASKET STRAW 

First draw lines in pencil round the hat rather wide apart, then 
draw the straw crossed or plaited exactly as it appears, wash in 
shadows under each piece of straw where it crosses the other, 
leaving the raised part light , the edges of the straw can then be 
touched in with albanine. If two or more colours are mixed together 
in the straw or silk, paint it to show the different shades from 
very dark to light. Knitted hats, crotchet hats, canvas, georgette 
and net, offer much practice and ingenuity to paint all these. 

BEAVER AND VELOUR 
(See Fig. loi) 

Beaver and velour hats are perennials and every autumn sees 
some variety of these ; the material is the same, only differing 
in shape and colour and sometimes in the way it is treated. Take 
beaver for instance, sometimes it is smooth like a man's top hat 
and sometimes left rough. The rough beaver is painted Uke fur, 
for the smooth very high lights must be shown to indicate the 
glossy surface. These are generally sports hats and it is better 
to draw a very young girl wearing them. Suede and oiled silk for 
wet weather and other unusual materials are pressed into the 
service of the millinery designer. Some artists specialise in 
millinery heads, but it narrows the field so much that I do not 
recommend it. 

I have described the painting of sequin and jet, this with lace 
is often seen in hats, the jet for matrons' toques ; but old and young 
wear very much the same style, the difference is not so great as 
in former times. {See Figs, no and in.) 



142 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 
HAT TRIMMINGS 



Cherries are always used in millinery, although there is not 
the rage for them every year, but in the autumn they form a most 
useful trimming. If the fruit is light in colour a little white mixed 




Fig. 102. — This is a newspaper illustration from the " Daily News.' 
pose of the head is good, and the corded ribbon clearly indicated 



The 



with the black can be used and the colour put on quite flat ; to 
raise it and make it look solid and round a half-tone is painted 
on one side when the first groundwork is dry ; this, with a bright 
spot of albanine, will make a very good representation of a cherry. 
A straw hat with ribbon and cherries sounds very commonplace, 
but it is the shape and the way it is placed on the head which 



MILLINERY 



143 



gives it a certain cachet most difficult to obtain unless the milliner 
and artist have the gift ; if so, this seemingly ordinary hat may 
be quite smart. See Fig. 103 for illustration of brocade with 
feathers. 




(^1 \ N 
Fig. 103. — Hat in Brocade, with Plumes 



FEATHERS 

Feathers are nearly as difficult as fur, and must be made to 
look light and graceful. If it is an ostrich feather, a line mtist 
be painted down the centre, wide at the root and tapering off to a 
single thread, from this rib the feather fronds are drawn and 
generally curled tmder, unless fashion's dictate says they must be 
straight as if they had been out in the rain. Paint the shadows in 
first, drawing lines from the centre each side in opposite directions. 
When this is quite dark enough, paint with albanine a fiae line 
down the middle of the rib and little lines branching off, turning 
the ends under ; don't outline each little frond until it looks like 
porcupine quills. The student must use her own judgment and put 
the white lines where they will have most effect. 




Fig. 104.— Millinery details in line. A spray of Roses, Cherries, an Ostrich 
Feather, a Ribbon Bow, a Wing ani ttvi kin.is of Straw 



H5 





Fig. 105. 

1805. 



Fig. 106. 
1810. 





Fig. 107. 
1812. 



Fig. 108. 
1925. From 1805. 



MILLINERY 



147 



FLOWERS 
In the spring and summer flowers predominate in the trimming. 
Try and make these as natural as possible. This is fairly easy in 




Fig. 109. — Hat with graceful lines, by Miss Bessie Ascough 

black and white ; it is the colour which gives them a freak 
appearance, where you get a bright blue rose, or a " sport " as your 
gardening friends would call it. Draw the exact shape of the 




Figs, no and in. — Evening Headdresses 
generally sold in tht Millinery Department 



149 




Fig. 112. 

Veil with Oriental 

Touch. 




Fig. 113. 
Hat with Jet Trimming. 



MILLINERY 151 

flowers on the hat, so that when it is reproduced the purchaser 
can easily see from the catalogue if the hat is trimmed with pansies, 
daisies, wallflowers, etc. Some of the flowers are so beautifiilly 
modelled that a millin er's room has quite the appearance of a florist's. 
As the flowers are so well shaped it is worth while to take trouble 
in painting them. Get sharp touches under the petals, and where 
the hat is almost composed of leaves each leaf is defined, the 
centre vein drawn in, and each little branching vein with the edge 
round or serrated, as it is in nature. Flower stems are sometimes 
twisted in a basket pattern and form the entire hat, with a lining of 
silk and tulle; in fact there is more variety I think in the shape 
and trimming and material of hats than in any other article of dress. 
Fig. 109 is another example of Miss Bessie Ascough's art with 
free graceful lines. 

VEILS 

Veils are alwa}^ in fashion, but like other articles of ladies' 
dress to " make her fair or leave her neat," the style of the veil is 
as variable as the breeze that blows it about. The veil is pre- 
sumably of Eastern origin, and indicates withdrawal and seclusion, 
and to take the veil is a shutting off from the world altogether. 
In England, except for the religious orders, the veil is merely an 
adjunct of dress, and worn to preserve the complexion from the 
boisterous or cutting winds of our climate. For this purpose the 
veil is drawn down completely covering the face and tied more 
or less tightly at the back of the hats, effectively imprisoning 
stray hairs ; the mesh of the veil is open, coarse or fine, at the 
choice of the wearer. To me a rather fine mesh with a few black 
spots, these having the effect of patches, is much prettier and 
more fascinating than a big eccentric design which, seen at a dis- 
tance, resembles a bum or scar. {See Fig. 112.) 

ItLUSTRATION 

Frequently, however, the veil is of no practical use, but flowing 
from the back of the hat forms a background to the face, and 
there are few women, however plain, who are not improved by the 
film of shadow against which the face is seen. Again, the veil 
may half cover the eyes and just hang down on the side, so it will be 
seen that to paint the veil effectively is no easy matter. 



152 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 




Fig. 1 14 — Dainty Hat in lint, from 
'•VArtet La Mod*" 



MII.LINERY 153 

PAINTING THE VEIL 

Paint the hat, going over the part which is covered by the veil 
with a lighter tone, but make the detail quite clear, as of course 
it would be visible through the net ; the brim of the hat should be 
quite dark at the edge, even under the veil, the hair, the eyes and 
eyebrows carefully drawn and painted, and a deep but soft 
shadow washed in right across the face under the edge of the veil. 
Paint the neck and shoulders, as the outlines will show through 
the veil. Now with very liquid paint wash in the veil, taking the 
paint over the hat, hair, neck and shoulder, in fact every part 
that it covers, copying the way it hangs and falls over, coming 
down to a pointed end. Very few lines, almost like ink lines, are 
drawn, giving a fine thin effect. On this foundation draw a few 
lines crossed to form a mesh as you would for lace, and if there is a 
border the pattern also should be drawn. The edge finishes with 
a little picot which adds to the realism of the painting when shown 
by thin little strokes. 

IlJ,USTRATIONS 

Arrange the veil, if possible, to show dark against the light side 
of the face and vice versa. Where the veil comes over the eyes, 
little lines of process white or albanine can be used, throwing 
the eyes deeper into shadow and heightening the artistic look of the 
whole drawing. 

I have dealt with millinery in detail, as it is a subject most 
interesting and worth studying. 

It will also be seen that the illustrations in this chapter on 
MilHnery are in most of the mediums I have been writing about : 
wash, line, and wash and line. (See Fig. 114.) 

Fashions frequently come round in cycles. In Figs. 105, 106, 
and 107 will be seen illustrations of old turbans. One modern 
boudoircap from old design. (See Fig. 108.) 



VIII 

FASHIONS IN COLOUR 

Frontispiece. (Fig. i.) The green drapery in this illustration 
is a good example of the way the yellow is superimposed over 
the blue to form the green. 

The pink in the face is repeated on the tassel of the chain. The 
brown and black tints in the fur, which is delightfully furry, are 
also used for the hat and hair. The face is beautifully finished. 

Fashion drawing in colour may be called the " Edition de Luxe " 
of this branch of art. A complete knowledge of fashions includes 
colour work as well as line and wash. That there is a demand 
for dainty figures in colour can soon be seen by looking at the 
best catalogues and magazines. Most of these have the front 
inside page in colour, and generally a page of coloured millinery. 
Then think of the number of covers required for the weekly 
magazines, varied by special season numbers, all these with 
different and appropriate designs. 

COLOURS REQUIRED 

Water colours in tubes will be needed, rose madder, vermillion, 
yellow ochre, cadmium, raw sienna, brown madder, cobalt, sky 
blue cobalt for faces, and emerald green. Other colours can be 
added, but these can be tried first ; for body colour Chinese white 
should be used with these. 

The same tints can be got in matt colours for the showcard and 
flat colour designs. 

I am taking it for granted that the student has some knowledge 
of mixing colours, but I may say that blue and brown madder 
make a delicate grey for shadows ; blue and vermillion also mix 
well. Rose madder and blue make mauve and purple. If a 
fresh spring green is required, lemon yellow with blue will give 
the tint ; but it is by experimenting that the student will learn 



FASHIONS IN COLOUR i55 

the numberless shades, every colour having gradations from light 
to dark, and I can only repeat the old advice " mix them with 
brains." 

Fig. 117. The girl with the mirror is another example of 
finished colour work, and the three separate colour printings of 
this are given so that the student may be able to see the different 
processes (Figs. 115-118). 

TWO COLOURS 

The reproduction of colour is naturally expensive, which is 
probably the reason so many advertisements are done in just two 
colours only. The colours generally used are blue and red. Ver- 
million is the best, with cobalt or ultramarine with a touch of darker 
blue in the shadow. 

DIFFERENT METHODS 

There are several methods of two-colour painting. Some paint 
in the entire figure in blue, hair and shadows on face, and then put 
the red over the blue, thus making it grey in the shadows and the 
light part red. Another method which I prefer and have used with 
good effect is to mix the blue and red at the same time, and especially 
for the face, using pure red for the lips. The dress is probably 
entirely blue, with only a touch of red to deepen the dark folds, or 
it may be all red with blue in the shadow parts. Rose madder or 
carmine with blue make a very dainty drawing, as by mixing the 
two colours one part of the dress may be blue and the other delicate 
lilac or mauve. 

Bold and striking designs can also be made by the contrasting of 
black and red or black and yellow. Green is also most effective, 
but as a composite colour more difficult to use. 

THREE OR MORE COLOURS 

(See Fig. 119.) This is a more elaborate design, the two figures 
being taken from a long panel painting. 

Note in this, the painting of detail and the arrangement of colour, 
the deep tone of the curtain throwing up the light dresses and 
figures. 

When the artist is required to draw a cover design introducing 
the actual dresses to be advertised, it is as a rule necessary to use 



156 FASHION DRAWING AND;dESIGN 

three or more colours. This gives much more scope and allows for 
more highly finished work. 

In every case it is advisable to begin by making a rough sketch 
and submitting this to your client. Any alterations can then be 
added or details left out as he wishes. This rough-out being passed, 
the artist feels that at least one bridge is crossed. A careful pencil 
sketch should then be made on a process board with slightly abraded 
surface. Wash in the broad shadows as you do in black and white ; 
keep all the colours pure and light ; do not go over it until dry, 
especially in the darker parts, as they are apt to get thick and treacly. 
Wash in the whole sketch with backgroimd if you have one ; it is 
impossible to gauge the strength of a sketch if one part is worked up 
and the other part just begun. 

In the chapter on Millinery, I have pointed out that the success 
of a drawing of hats depends so much upon the face ; this applies 
certainly to colour. For the cover of a millinery catalogue a pretty 
face and a smart hat are often used. Some clients like a broad wash, 
and others more finish. Considerable practice is essential before 
attempting these millinery cover designs, as the head is generally 
rather large and the whole effect depends upon it being well placed 
and painted. 

Begin the painting of the face by washing in the shadows with blue 
and brown madder. Next block in the hat and hair, and put a light 
wash over the face — rose madder, yellow ochre and sky-blue cobalt 
are suitable colours. Do not get the face too pink, a little light red 
helps the flesb tint. 

The shadows should be delicate, not heavy or opaque, and in these 
raw sienna and cadmium may be used with good effect. 

The hat, of whatever material, must be painted in detail, and the 
whole finished up as much as a portrait study. 

Touches of body colour on the dress and hat will give just that 
brilliant finish which is so charming in this work. 

MATERIALS 

As we are considering sketches from model dresses the design must 
be highly finished, every detail accurately drawn and the different 
fabrics shown, i.e. if the coat is velvet and the skirt of cloth this 
must be clearly defined. The future purchaser should be able to 



FASHIONS IN COLOUR 157 

see what kind of lace is used — torchon or valenciennes. All these 
points are of importance when painting for advertisement. 

To paint velvet use the colour very liquid, but get the darks 
very rich and deep ; and for the delicate bloom which is always seen 
on velvet Chinese white should be mixed with colour, and put on 
very carefully or it will look opaque. Only practice will give the 
facile touch in just the right place and in the right strength. vSilk is a 
great pleasure to the artist, even if he sometimes despairs at getting 
the effect. The silk is not painted with quite so much water, as the 
touches are sharper than in velvet or cloth. Here again white is 
used for the high lights, but in silk it is almost pure ; these lights 
are sharp and broken, giving the shimmering and changing tones. 
Silk also has beautiful reflections and these should be put in to give 
full value to the painting. 

Trimming of gold and silver is often found difficult in colour, but 
with a little care can easily be expressed. For gold use ochre and 
raw sienna in the shadows, and cadmium mixed with white for the 
bright parts. For silver, for the light use pure white, and in the 
shadows blue, and with a very slight touch of ochre to prevent it 
looking leaden. 

FLAT OR MATT COLOURS 

(Fig. 121.) A method most frequently used now is that of paint- 
ing in Matt colours or with water colour in flat tints. As most 
artists have had some experience in ordinary water colour the 
painting of fashions in flat colour should not prove difficult ; but to 
make a figure stand out from the background and look solid is a 
different thing, and this can only be done by the careful placing of 
colour and some knowledge of colour perspective. Many of the 
magazine covers are in flat colour, such as Vogue, The London, 
Pan and numbers of others. 

I must describe how to use the paint in this way. First sketch 
your subject in very carefully, not leaving any part of the design 
unfinished ; it is almost impossible to arrange your colour imless this 
is done. It is a good plan to draw the design on the board or paper 
the exact size you wish it to be, and then on a small card or cards 
cut in proportion to the larger one, you can try several different 
arrangements of colour and decide upon the one which is most 
effective. 



158 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

Think it out before beginning, as it is fatal to alter a flat colour 
picture. First, consider if you wish to paint a light figure against 
a dark background, or dark against a light. Then again, you may 
have a group of two or more figures ; these must be in strong contrast 
either against each other or the backgroimd. 

DESCRIPTION OF FLAT COLOUR PAINTINGS 

I will describe a showcard which proved very effective. It 
had two figures. One was in deep plum colour dress, light petticoat 
and black hat ; this was dark against a light blue curtain and window. 
The other figure had a white cap, yellow dress and white apron ; 
this was silhouetted against a tree seen through the window and the 
dark shadow under the window-sill, the purple and the yellow 
harmonising, although with a marked difference between them. 

Another was drawn in a circle with a half figure in the centre 
in a light green dress and with red hair standing against a dark 
blue curtain ; on the right a grey chest of drawers, and on the left 
a red lacquer table on which was a green bowl of flowers (the red 
table repeating the tone of the hair), and a scarf thrown over the back 
of a chair, the stripes repeating all the colours in the design. 

There was a very good one on the cover of one of the magazines. 
There are two half-length figures, one with deep pettmia cloak 
and brown fur, light jade green hat. This figure is bending forward. 
The near figure coming in front of the dark one has a bright red 
hat, white fur and pale yellow coat ; this is shown up in strong 
relief against the brown and purple. The backgrotmd has a dark 
blue grey sky with vivid orange streaks, black fir trees against the 
sky, and a foreground of snow, a few flakes falling on the two 
figures. I wish I could show a reproduction of this cover design, 
as words cannot convey edways the idea of colour contrast. 

Miss Hawkesley, who has adopted this somewhat Japanese 
style, paints most beautiful pictures, the principal lines very 
delicate, drapery of wonderful colour, but generally very rich 
and subdued. 

METHOD 

When you have tried the colours on small cards, begin to paint. 
Wash over the face, neck and hands with vermillion and a little 
ochre or, if preferred, a very light sepia tint. When this is dry. 



159 



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Fig. 115. "Three-Colour" Process— The Yellow Plate 



161 




Fig. 1 1 6. "Three-Colour" Process— The Red P 



LATE 



163 





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Fig. 117. "Three-Colour" Process — The Blue Plate 



165 







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'IG. II». 



8. A Completed Reproduction by "Three-Colour' 



P 



rocess 



FASHIONS IN COLOUR 167 

outline the features with vermillion, the lips also should be painted 
in pure red, the eyes in blue or black, and the hair brown, red or 
black. To give the effect of hairs, lines can be drawn in a darker 
brown or red ; if the hair is absolutely black, a few outside lines should 
be drawn. 

The dress is next washed in — to ensure the paint drying quite 
flat you must mix enough on your palette to go over all of it at the 
same time. If the colour, when dry, is too light, a second wash 
can be put on, but it is always better to have the exact quantity 
of paint and the depth of tone required. 

Proceed now with the background in the same manner, where the 
colour is scattered ; that is, if you have yellow flowers in one comer 
and a yellow lampshade in the other and yellow drapery somewhere 
else, paint all these at the same time so that the tints may match 
and not be lemon yellow in one place and cadmium in another. 
If the colour does not dry smoothly the uneven places can be 
touched up with the paint mixed with a little Chinese white and the 
part carefully patched up. 



MATT COLOURS 

This brings me to the subject of Matt colours. These and what 
are known as Poster colours are most useful for show cards ; they 
are particularly good on tinted paper. These colours are ready mixed 
with white and can be obtained at most art shops in tubes or jars. 
I should recommend the tubes, as I find the paint does not dry 
up or crack so quickly. 

A few colours can be bought as a trial — ^vermillion, emerald green, 
cerulean and French blue, yellow and rose madder. These the 
student would find sufficient as a beginning. Very little water 
should be used, only enough to make the paint a little liquid. With 
an ordinary brush paint it straight on to the paper. Do not mind 
if it looks too bright or too dark ; it always dries lighter, and for 
show cards or posters brilliance does not matter, the aim is to 
attract. 

A figure in deep blue cloak over a rose pink dress on a grey 
paper looks very smart, the head with black hair against yellow 
Chinese lanterns, the colours of the cloak and dress repeated in 
the other accessories. A brown and black figure on a light brown 



i68 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

paper with blue sea and sky can be made most effective, and what is 
more to the point, is cheap to reproduce. 

In colour work, the student must have a knowledge of the 
process of reproduction. For a three-colour sketch the drawing 
passes through several printings, first of all the parts which are 
green and have a basis of yellow are printed over with yellow ; 
the next printing, all the blue tone is put in, then the red. These 
three colours superimposed (one over the other) make all the tones 
in the picture ; red over yellow gives orange, blue over yellow gives 
green, red over blue purple, and so on. 

The more colours, of course the more expensive, and if the 
artist can keep to two or three he may be able to sell his design 
more readily than if it had been painted more elaborately, and it will 
also save him from disappointment at the result of the reproduction 
where probably the printer has been obliged to minimise the colours 
to meet the wishes of his client as to price. 

The student must not let the fascination of colour make him 
forget that good drawing is essential. I find my pupils are so 
carried away by trying experiments that when they are brought 
back from these flights of fancy to the prosaic line and wash 
they often fail. So it is necessary to quite master wash and line 
before attempting anything in colour. The first trial sketch may 
be entirely in black and white, with only the pattern on the 
dress and the hat painted in red. This can easily be reproduced, 
the whole of the red part in one printing and the black in a 
second one. 

Catalogue and magazine covers, as I said at the beginning of 
the subject, frequently have just a head ; but there is a great 
difference in the way these heads are painted — some, such as those by 
Harrison Fisher, elaborately worked up, but vignetted on a plain 
ground, others enclosed in a circle ; this acts as a frame and adds 
very much to the finish of a sketch. Of course, the kind of sketch 
for a cover design entirely depends upon the purpose for which 
it is intended. For instance, a Fur Catalogue would probably have 
a girl holding up a muff and clad in a sumptuous ermine stole. 
For a spring and sunmier one — children and yoimg girls with 
flowers and birds, daffodils and butterfhes would be suitable. 

The showcard must impress upon the pubUc the desirability 
of buying someone's silk, golf coats, lingerie, shoes, etc., and this 



i 



FASHIONS IN COLOUR 169 

must alwajrs be remembered. It should be well thought out 
and submitted in the rough to the client. 

COLOUR AND THE REPRODUCTION^OF COLOUR 
The use of colour for Fashion drawing may tempt the artist 
to assume that it provides unlimited scope ; but such 
an opportunity, however desirable, is rarely accorded in work 
which is subservient to the economic requirements of commerce. 
This being the case with practically all Fashion drawing, it is 
important that the artist should from the very commencement 
of any colour project bear in mind the process to which the drawing 
will be subjected in course of reproduction. The main objective 
should be to produce the desired result by such methods as will 
involve the most economical process of reproduction and printing. 
In order to achieve this end it is essential that the artist should 
become somewhat acquainted with the principles and methods of 
colour reproduction, at any rate so far as they affect his work. If he 
understands and adheres to these principles he is not only simplifying 
the task of reproduction, but he may also expect more faithful 
results. Many artists complain bitterly about the bad repro- 
duction of their drawings, when the fault is largely their own by 
not conforming to the limitations of the process by which their 
work is reproduced. 

Colour reproduction is a vast subject in itself, but it will serve 
a useful purpose here to outline those scientific principles of colour 
upon which the photo-reproduction processes are based. 

Science has proved that all colour is really the property 
of light and not of the substance which appears to the human 
eye to possess colour. It is an estabUshed fact that different 
substances reflect and absorb rays of light in different ways, and 
it can be proved by means of the spectrum that natural light 
contains aU the known colours. When an object viewed in 
a natural white light appears to be white it means that 
the object is reflecting all the rays of Ught, absorbing none; 
so that the reflection from the object is, so far as the discernment 
of the eye can detect, the same as the light in which it is viewed. 
If the substance appears black it is absorbing all light, reflecting 
none, whereas a substance appearing to be red is absorbing 
all the colour of light except red, which it is reflecting. Therefore 



I 



170 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

the apparent colour of any object is produced by those rays of light 
which it reflects. 

It is upon this scientific theory of colour that the photo- 
reproduction of coloured drawings or objects is based, and by 
working on these principles it was found possible to make the 
reproduction of coloured objects a practical and an economic 
process. 

The first consideration in modem colour reproduction was to 
make the process capable of being printed : — 

(a) From a flat surfaced plate ; 
(6) With coloured printing inks ; 

at the same time bearing in mind the fact that each plate is 
only capable of being inked with one colour at a time, as the 
method of ink distribution is by revolving rollers, whereby it 
follows that the whole surface of the plate must of necessity get 
inked. 

The next step was to find a way by means of photography to 
separate the colours of the subject into as few " primary "• colours 
as possible, but in such a way that when these " primary " colours 
were super-imposed on paper by means of printing ink they would 
combine to form a reproduction in colour of the subject photo- 
graphed. The " primary " colours found to be effective were 
yellow, red and blue, of which certain shades were standardised. 
These standardised " primary " colours should be very closely 
studied by the artist who draws for reproduction, and on every 
possible occasion he should endeavour to obtain his effects solely 
by the use of those standard colours or by shades or tints which 
can be produced by combinations of those colours. 

By means of these colour filters it is found possible to 
separate coloured subjects into the three " primaries." These 
" filters " are pieces of coloured glass interposed in the camera 
between the subject and the negative, which is specially made 
to be colour-sensitive. For the three-colour process the three- 
colour filters are violet, green and orange. The violet filter 
transmits all red and blue rays of light, but absorbs all yeUow 
rays, which means that shadows are cast by the red and blue rays 

* These colours are not "primary " colours from a purely scientific point 
of view ; the latter are the seven colours of the rainbow or spectrum. 




KiG. 119. A Section of a Design for Showcard, 



173 




.UUUCING A BACKGROUND HARMONIZING WITH FIGURES 
I 'Sy Courtesy of Messrs. J. Lashivood 



175 




Fig. 1 20. An Effective Design, of Japanese 
Character 



177 




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OXFORDCIRCUS 



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Fig. 121. An Example of Flat Brilliant colour on a 

Dark. Ground 



FASHIONS IN COLOUR 179 

on the negative, but the yellow rays penetrate the filter. When 
the negative is printed on to copper plate, then the former being 
transparent where the yellow rays have penetrated allows the 
sensitised copper plate to be exposed. In a similar manner the 
green filter absorbs the reds and transmits blues and yellows, 
whilst the orange filter absorbs the blues and transmits the red 
and yellow tones. In other words, the violet filter picks out the 
yellow values, yellow not being one of the components which 
form violet, viz., red and blue combined ; the green filter picks 
out the red values ; and the orange filter picks out the blue values. 
It should be pointed out that the violet filter not only " picks out " 
all the yellows seen as such, but it also picks out all yellow where 
it is a component part of some other colour. In this way are 
three copper plates produced : a yellow plate, a red plate and a 
blue plate. These three plates, known as a set of three-colour 
blocks, when individually inked with the colour for which they 
are specially made, and printed one over the other, can, if carefully 
produced, give a fairly accurate reproduction of any colour subject, 
so long as colours or tints foreign to the three " primaries " are 
not introduced. The introduction of black or grey to a colour 
drawing invariably means that a " special " plate of the black 
or grey portions has to be made, thus making a " four-colour 
set," which, of course, involves four printings, adding thereby 
considerably to the expense. Tints which appear to be black or 
grey can be obtained by the " three-colour " process, but without 
the introduction of the special extra plate the result cannot be 
guaranteed to be entirely satisfactory. 

It frequently happens also that an artist quite unnecessarily uses 
two entirely different blues, which cannot possibly be reproduced 
without making two blue plates, whereas two shades of the standard 
blue would have just as well given the required effect. 

It may be easily understood, therefore, that an artist unacquainted 
with the principles of colour reproduction may quite inadvertently 
produce a drawing which would involve four, five or even 
more colour plates to reproduce it through introducing black, 
grey or two or more contrasting shades of one of the " primary " 
colours. 

These methods of colour separation by photography form the 
common fundamental principle of all the commercial photo-colour 



l8o FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

processes, whether by Zinco Line Colour Blocks, Half -Tone Screen 
Colour Blocks, Offset, Chromo-Lithography or Colour Collotype, 
the first two named being by far the most generally used, chiefly on 
the score that they combine both economy and reasonably faithful 
reproduction. 

ZINC LINE PLATES FOR COLOUR WORK 

" Zinc Line Plates " are considerably cheaper to make than 
copper " Half -Tone " Screen Plates, and where the requirements of 
the subject can be met by the former process the artist should see 
that his drawing is executed in a suitable manner. The principal 
condition to remember in connection with this process is that only 
solid mass or " flat " colour, or " tones " produced by open line 
hatching or dot tinting, can be produced. No gradations of tone 
by wash methods can be introduced into this process. The 
principles of colour separation are the same as in the 
" Half-Tone Colour Process." 

HALF-TONE SCREEN COLOUR BLOCKS 

The plates of these blocks are made of copper, and are distinct 
from line plates, inasmuch as they are suitable for such drawings as 
possess various degrees of colour and tone as well as light and shade. 
This is achieved by the " Screen," which is a piece of optical glass 
containing very fine lines running across each other in opposite 
directions. This screen inserted in the camera cuts the reproduction 
of the drawing printed on to the copper plate into very fine dots 
which are distinguishable in the printed copy under a magnifying- 
glass. These dots are fine and far apart, or heavy and close together, 
according to whether that part of the drawing is light or very dark. 
In other words they vary in diameter according to the tones of the 
drawing, absolutely touching where the tone is solid. These blocks 
are printed by a flat-bed letterpress machine. This process, owing 
to the hard, smooth face of the copper blocks, and to the fineness 
and closeness of these dots, is only suitable for printing on a paper 
with a highly-finished surface. Rough surface papers give uneven 
contact with half-tone blocks owing to the fine pressure and delicate 
inking required. 



FASHIONS IN COLOUR i8i 



OFF-SET 



This process is a further development of half-tone printing, 
chiefly conceived to meet the objection that the latter can only be 
satisfactorily printed on a highly-finished paper. To print these on 
a rough paper a special half-tone block is made, and on the off-set 
machine it is designed to make an impression first on to a smooth 
rubber " blanket," and transferred from the blanket to the paper. 
The pliable surface of the rubber conforms to any roughness of 
surface which the paper possesses and gives proper contact. Of f -set 
is still in a somewhat undeveloped state, although sufficient progress 
has already been made to give surprisingly good results. At present, 
however, off-set colour work tends to be a little too bold in 
colour effect, a fault which, for large work, like posters, is some- 
times an advantage. 

The artist must remember that all these processes are subject to 
certain limitations. Accurate results can only be achieved by 
absolutely perfect lighting during reproduction, perfect colour 
filters, photographic operation, etching of the copper plates, 
good inks and high-class printing, and it is easy to understand 
that perfection in all these respects is exceedingly difficult to attain. 
If the artist adds to these difficulties by using tints which require 
special filters and special hand engraving, not only are the chances of 
accurate reproduction then rendered much more remote, but the 
cost of reproduction is accentuated considerably. 

If the first proof submitted by the engraver is defective, do not 
condemn it without intelligent analysis as to the cause of its defects. 
The first proof is invariably pulled with inks of the standard 
" primary " colours which, theoretically speaking, should give the 
right result. Ofttimes, however, it does not, but a little varia- 
tion in one or more of the primary colours will possibly correct 
the whole reproduction. 



y 



IX 

FASHION DESIGN 

I HAVE previously dealt with the technique of painting in relation 
to fashions and explained how to show the different styles and 
fabrics in wash, line, colour, etc. I must now write about the way 
to design dresses. The need does not always come to the ordinary 
fashion artist to originate a mode and some do not attempt it at all. 
I think this is a mistake, as it leaves the student not fully equipped 
at the end of his training. It is true that it is not given to everyone 
to have a flair for the future style ; it was jormerly considered a 
special gift of the French, but of late years we have been much more 
in the running, and can originate and also grasp and adapt the more 
advanced of the French fashions to the Englishwoman's taste. 

There is a movement to make London the fashion centre instead 
of Paris. If that is possible a wonderful vista will be opened for 
the fashion artist and designer. For many years now it has been 
taken for granted, if a draper or dressmaker wishes to impress a 
customer, it is always the magic words " The latest from Paris." 
Some enterprising people of whom I heard took a room — or I should 
say a salon — in Bond Street, and every day the model dresses were 
brought over by aeroplane ; but I do not think these " mushroom " 
businesses last very long. Of course if the directing head is a 
designer that is a different matter. 

On the other hand, some well-known designers. Captain Molyneux, 
Mr. Reville, Elspeth Phelps and others are English, so we need not 
despair. There is no reason at all why London should not be the 
centre of Fashion. It is said that the French are more devoted to 
dress and devote a great many of their energies and business talents 
in this way. In a walk down Wood Street, Fore Street and other 
parts of the City, it will at once be evident that most of the ware- 
houses are connected with clothes. In fact, it is quite dangerous. 
Trap-doors are open in the pavement, bales of goods are being 



FASHION DESIGN 



183 



lowered down to basement storerooms, vans and carriers' carts][are 
by the kerb, and pyramids are being built up of hat boxes ; 
apprentices hurrying by with parcels, fashion artists with sketch 




Fig. 122. — Modern Dress showing Chinese influence 

books and pencils — a whirl of business. A play some years ago 
called " My Lady's Dress," since shown on the film, was a revela- 
tion of the number of people and activities required for one dress. 
Silk spinners, weavers, lace makers, leather workers, hosiers, 




Fig. 123. — The Shawl pattern is 
Chinese or Indian. Spain con- 
tributes many beautiful ones 



'85 




Fig. 124. 

This Painted Evening Frock might easily have been 
taken from an old fashion plate. 



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Fig. 130. 
A Rich Lady reading before the Painted Altar Piece in her Private 

Chapel. (Late XV Century). 




Fig. 131. 
A Lady Re.\ding. 
From Contemporary Manuscripts. 



{XV Century). 



194 




Fig. 132. 
Panel Embroidered in Floss Silk. 




Fig. 133. Panel of a Dress. 
Chinese Embroideries. 



FASHION DESIGN 



195 



milliners, artificial flower makers, button and braid manufacturers, 
the lonely trapper, not to mention the designer, the dressmaker. 




Fig. 134. — Modern Dress with Victorian influence 



the m il lin er, shoemaker, glover, etc. Surely fashions should not 
be despised, or the fashion makers, when it gives occupation and 
employment to such numbers of people. 



196 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 



HISTORICAL DRESS 

Fig. 138. It is said there is nothing new under the sun, and this 
seems absolutely true ; certainly, when we are looking through old 
books, the long-waisted dress and the hanging sleeves might easily 
have been copied from the Tudor period ; the skimpy tight dresses of 
1914 were modified Merveilleuses, jumpers are Saxon, and accordion- 
pleated skirts Egyptian and thousands of years old. Even the 
Church has been called upon to contribute ideas, and sometimes there 
is a distinct ecclesiastical touch in the hanging stoles or the Dalmatic 
shaped tunic or cloak. There has also been an attempt at in- 
troducing dresses of the Victorian Era (see Figs. 124 and 134) 
modern adaptation. 

The artist will see that the fashion designer is able to cull his 
ideas from many sources. What is required is a certain gift of seeing 
the trend of fashion and presenting it in an attractive and practical 
way. These original designs are required by the dressmaker and 
the magazines, but even these are divided into several classes : 
Court dressmakers, theatrical dressmakers, and wholesale cos- 
tumiers ; the magazines from the highly priced monthly or weekly 
to the 3d paper, and also the daily Press ; so in this there is a 
wide field, and I certainly think it is unwise of the student not to 
give some time to the study of design. It is both fascinating and 
profitable. If the student can get in touch with some wholesale 
houses he may obtain hints which will be of great help to him. 
He must notice if the dress has a tendency to be long or short, if 
the sleeves only reach the elbows, or come to a point over the 
hand, the high or low neck — in fact, all the htmdred and one 
little details which are so important. Materials should be taken 
into consideration, as the style you wish to design may require 
a heavy velvet or cloth, or crepe de chine and silk. 

Designs for dressmakers can be made any size ; some drawn about 
seven or eight inches on rather thin paper, they are also drawn on 
water colour paper or boards. The design is then elaborated : 
several colours, gold and silver paint, ink, in fact any medium can be 
employed to convey the idea. Metallic powders and paints described 
in the chapter on Colour are used for the gold tissues, iridescent 
beads and brocades which are the mode. In fact, a description 



FASHION DESIGN 197 

of a fashionable wedding to-day reads very much like those of the 
Renaissance. 

An attractive figure is sketched in with the face and hands quite 
carefully drawn ; on this foundation build up the dress or costume. 
Detail and material can be shown in the pencil, and very frequently 
the drawing is not carried any further, but in other cases the dress 
should be very lightly inked in and tinted. This colouring is not 
elaborated, just sufficient is washed on to indicate the scheme and 
convey the whole effect to the customer. 

COURT DRESS 
Designing for a Court dressmaker is more intricate than for 
an ordinary one, as the artist must be thoroughly conversant with 
the rules and regulations in relation to Court dress, and these 
must be carefully followed and any style which is taboo avoided. 
Very beautiful materials are used for these Court dresses, the train 
of silver tissue embroidered with diamante and pearls or real 
lace. The dress also of brocade, chiffon, satin, or any fabric which 
will drape weU and lend itself to decoration. The length of the 
train, the shortness of the skirt, all these requirements and 
restrictions hamper the designer and need much study of Court 
etiquette. 

THEATRICAL DRESSES 

To dress a play or pageant requires much historical research, 
and the artist should have the power of seeing in his mind the 
effect a dress will have on a stage or in the open-air. If it is for 
a play, the lighting must be taken into consideration, but designing 
for a pageant is a different matter (see Fig. 135), and the massing 
and grouping of colours to be seen in brilliant stmlight is a good 
test of the artist's power in colour design. There are many oppor- 
tunities nowadays in local towns and suburbs for practising 
theatrical designing, as most of the costumes are home made and 
a clever designer is soon discovered, and the work he or she does 
will be of immense use in the future. 

As I have said, designing is quite a gift, but it can be cvdtivated. 
At first when the artist is asked to design a dress, he feels that 
every possible style has already been used, but gradually an idea 
comes to hjm which he tentatively tries, it seems to look well and 




Fig. 135. — Fancy Dress 



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FASHION DESIGN 203 

he begins to develop it until he has evolved quite an original dress. 
I felt exactly the same when I had to design some sports coats 
and jimipers. I had been sketching about one hundred, every 
one different, and it seemed impossible to think of a new shape 
in collars or crochet edging, or in the combination of colours, but 



Fig. 140. — Dress. Grecian Female from a fictile vase 

after the first one it became easier to go on contriving and thinking 
it out. I cannot give an infallible guide to dress designing, I 
can only suggest recipes for a few points which the artist should 
make a note of. One very important point is the suitability of the 
design; for instance, if it is for a restaurant gown almost any 
graceful thin material is permissible, and velvet trimmed with 
Q 



204 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 



fur in winter, or georgette and lace in summer, would work up 
into a smart dress. The neck may be a little low, cut into a round 
or V, but it must have sleeves, even if they are short ; a sleeveless 
gown is not good form for restaurant wear. A house dress must 
not be so elaborate, but if the design is for a society paper or West 




Fig. 141. — Grecian Dress 

End firm, it can be of silk, georgette, marocain, or whatever fabric 
is in fashion. On the other hand, the smaller magazines catering 
for the home dressmaker require a simpler style altogether and 
cheaper materials must be suggested for carrying out the design. 
There is still a wide field for jumpers and sports coats, and new 
stitches and new shapes, etc., are eagerly sought by the manu- 
facturers. 



FASHION DESIGN 



DESIGNING FOR TRIMMINGS 



205 



Materials and trimmings play a large part in deciding the style 
of a dress. On one occasion a wholesale dealer in trimmings asked 
a fashion artist to design a dress showing some new lace to the best 
advantage. This was done by introducing panels of lace, etc., 
adapting it to the dress of the moment. This design proving very 
satisfactory, he next gave the artist some braid and buttons, and 
from these he biult up some smart tailored costumes. 

If the future fashion designer will think of these, he will notice 
that one year the dresses will be designed to show off lace in every 
colour and every kind. Another year it will be embroidery, and 
even that is subdivided into raffia, wool, silk, tinsel and various 
other materials. 

I referred to designing for dressmakers. This is usually more 
individual. The dressmaker knows her clients, and requires the 
design to suit some characteristic, and not to offer a client who is 
unfortunately stout a dress with lines going round the figure, or a 
heavy brocade to a young girl ; but this is comparatively easy, as 
the dressmaker will guide the artist. 

MAGAZINE DESIGNING 

There is more to be done in designing for newspapers and maga- 
zines. New periodicals are constantly being started, and although 
the life of some is very short, others come to stay. There are also 
the old-estabUshed ones. Before submitting any sketches to an 
editor, the artist must study the style of those designs already 
published, and must remember that his designs must not only equal 
the printed ones, but go one better. 

The illustrations given in this chapter on Design are so useful, 
as well as charming, that they seem to call for a separate description. 

Fig. 128. The figure on the left is of a simple girlish dress with 
becoming high waist and two ruches or frills on the skirt. This 
might be adapted for a muslin or tub frock. 

The figure on the right is from a painting by Miss Pierpoint, 
the same period, but an elaborate ball dress. We can imagine 
Becky Sharp wearing it {see Fig. 129). 

We have again three characteristic dresses much the same time 
as in Fig. 12 g. The one on the left is, I think, the most elegant 



ao6 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

of any of those given. The graceful pose of the figure, the cloak 
and hat, all form a fashion plate that the modem school would 
do well to copy (see Fig. 125). 

The centre figure is also very simple and has several points 
that would give ideas for a design {see Fig. 126). 

The design of the cloak in the third figure has been in vogue 
many times since this plate was published (see Fig. 127). 

Figs. 130 and 131. These are very beautiful designs, the richness 
of the dress, the quaint and fine backgroimd are worth a close 
study, the one reminiscent of a painted missal. 

Figs. 136 and 137. Rare Chinese dresses and in colour most 
beautiful ; the rich blues, rose colour and gold are wonderful for 
their harmony of colour. There is a strong Chinese influence shown 
in the dresses worn this year, the long tunics, sleeveless coats and 
rich embroideries are all culled from this nation. The lady at 
the loom and the group of three will give a good idea of ancient 
China. 

Fig. 123. The shawl is Chinese in origin. 

CHINESE EMBROIDERIES 
{See Figs 132 and 133) 

Perhaps we are too near the Victorian era to appreciate the 
crinoline fashion, but when it is seen on the stage it is very quaint 
and pretty, with its billowing skirts, fascinating bonnets and 
wreaths of roses. 

Greek figures and designs have always been used by dress 
designers for inspiration, and from time to time we see this very 
plainly. The clinging drapery of the Empire period shows this 
tendency. Figs. 140 and 141 are good examples. 

Fig. 142. A bride's dress, designed by Captain Molyneux, is 
Egyptian. The opening of Tutankahmen's tomb had a great 
influence on fashion, and the lotus, scarab and other symbols 
were woven into materials made as chains, brooches and head- 
dresses. It was a passing phase and, like others, is quickly gone. 

There are two sources from which to draw inspirations : the 
very new and the very old. I have already made some remarks 
upon these and told the designer how he must watch the 
changing styles, as variable as the wind, but when he finds 




Fig. 142. — Dress. Egyptian design, by Captain Molyneux. Sketch by Miss 

Madge Munro 



2o8 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

it veering in certain directions he must have by him books of 
reference or know where to look at bygone fashions. The Lady's 
Companions of 1815 to 1830-40 are very useful ; also a book of 
historical costume ; the one by Dion Calthorp is very good. At 
the Print Room of the Victoria and Albert Museum, South 
Kensington, there is a splendid collection of dresses of all ages, 
and permission to draw any of these is easily obtained. In the 
Print Room (Department of Engraving, Illustration and Design) 
of the Victoria and Albert Museum there is a fine collection of 
fashion plates and costume illustrations. We Uttle think where 
the designs we admire come from. When I was looking at the 
dresses on one occasion at South Kensington, the attendant, while 
replacing a most beautiful specimen, a Georgian dress of rich 
silk most exquisitely embroidered, told me the embroidery 
design had just been copied by an artist to adapt for a wallpaper. 
So ideas may be gathered for draping material, fine needlework 
and numbers of attractive costumes evolved from these examples. 



X 

BACKGROUNDS 

It is necessary to study backgrounds, as the Fashion Artist is 
often asked to paint the figure in suitable surroundings. It requires 
some ingenuity to think of variety and suitability. A client asked 
me to group some figures, three on a page and each page with a 
different background, and as there were about thirty pages I 
had to sketch railway station, river, golf, fishing, hockey, garden 
parties, etc., and not only to plan these out, but to choose scenes 
appropriate to the dresses. With some artists this is quite a gift, 
others find it most difficult. The figure and dress are quite good, 
but the background spoils the effect, sometimes by being out of 
place and sometimes by bad drawing. 

Above all things, the artist must remember she is a fashion 
artist and not a landscape painter, and the background must be 
subordinate to the figures. 

CHOOSING A BACKGROUND 

If the gown is very elaborate, but not essentially an evening 
dress, it at once suggests a restaurant with tea tables and perhaps 
flowers, or an interior, the Academy private view or some afternoon 
reception. {See Fig. 143.) A figure in evening dress is comparatively 
easy to place, and hanging lamps, a few palms and a polished 
floor will give the desired effect. 

Furs, again, must be arranged by their quality and shape, and 
the figures may appear skating, at the opera, motoring or shopping ; 
in fact, in any place, only taking care that your cheap coney coat 
is not worn at a reception and the 500-guinea ermine or sable is 
not drawn on a figure skating or on a country walk. 

For country wear a tweed coat and skirt are the most correct, 
and a background with shooting, fishing or any sport according 
to the cut and shape of the costume. {See Fig. 145.) 



210 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

Miss Hoare, in Messrs. Bradley's catalogues, is most ingenious 
with her backgrounds, especially in the fur sketches, and one 
looks forward to seeing the latest catalogues, wondering what 
new ideas she will have. I would advise the student to study some 
of the sketches of Mr. Tom Purvis and others. {See Fig. 146.) In 
contrast to this, tub frocks, as they are now called, or washing 
dresses, as we used to say ; for these the sea or river form very 
good backgrounds; boats, Japanese umbrellas, rushes and trees 
make an attractive picture. 

Not only must the surroundings be chosen with care, but the 
artist must decide the method. 

They can be roughly divided into two, the realistic and the 
decorative. Mr. Fred Pegram's delightful advertisement sketches 
in the newspapers, also of Miss Hocknell's children with the cats, 
pillow fighting, toys, etc., are most realistic. 

The other style is more difficult, and is apt to show the weakness 
of composition. If the decorative style is well done it is most 
arresting, and draws the attention at once, but the warning I gave 
about mixing methods holds good quite as much in sketching back- 
groimds as in the figures. (See Fig. 150.) 

A girl in sports coat sketched in a natural maimer does not look 
well with a background of trees blocked in (Fig. 144), conventional 
flowers formed of dotted lines and fountains with nymphs. This 
kind of decoration calls for some eccentric, bizarre robe or fancy 
dress. 

Not only must the suitability and harmony of backgrounds be 
considered, but also composition. The old rule was to draw a line 
diagonally across a picture from comer to comer, the chief figures 
or interesting object was placed in the space to the right or left of 
this line, the rest of the picture filled in with minor accessories or 
scenes. Or another instmction to the student was to draw two 
lines from the four comers, crossing in the middle of the picture ; the 
figures were then drawn in to occupy the centre, the rest of the space 
carrjring out the colour and ideas. 

These two or three rules are quite good for a general guide, but 
there are other considerations to take into account in commercial 
art, and that is tmnecessary space. {See Fig. 147.) The block costs so 
much a square inch, and if it is to advertise a dress, the client does 
not wish to pay for a meandering river or grove of trees, however 



212 




Fig. 143. 
Evening Dress with suitable Background. 



214 




Fig. 144. 
Background suitable for Country or Sports Dress. 



2l6 




Fig. 145. 
An Excellent Pose with Effective Background for Light Dresses. 




Fig. 146. 
A K.\ce Scene in Oils, by Tom Purvis, good ex.\mple of Grouping. 




Fig. 147. 
Autumn Background. 



319 




Fig. 148. 
Background Sketch by Tom Purvis. 




Fig. 149. — Good sketch with light background of leaves 



222 



FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 



well painted. A glance through a good catalogue will show how in a 
few lines distance can be suggested without taking up much space. 

Colour blocks are especially expensive, and again the question of 
space must be considered. 

While I am speaking of economy of space, when a crowd of 




Fig. 150. — Figures enclosed in circle with chair, chandelier and butler's 
arm and hand holding tray 

figures must be got into a rather small space I should suggest a 
platform or steps on which the figures can be posed at different 
heights, not only enabling the artist to show many more full length 
figures than if they were on a level, but also to fill in the sky, which 
always presents a difficulty, the artist wishing to leave a nice open 



BACKGROUNDS 223 

space to show up the figures and the client to advertise as many 
things as he can have crowded on the same page without quite 
spoiling the effect. 

{See Fig. 149.) Where the figures are painted singly, the advertise- 
ment manager arranges the paper for the printer in what is known 
as a lay-out, but if this arrangement of things is left to the artist he 
must study it. To display everything to the best advantage it 
requires much practice and brain-racking calculations, as it must 
fit in to a fraction of an inch. 

To paint backgrounds successfully the student must have a 
working knowledge of simple perspective. It is not at all imusual to 
see the floor going uphill, a chair which would not stand, or other 
glaring faults which show at once that the student has little or no 
knowledge of perspective. 

It is not necessary to study the subject deeply, but I shotild 
certainly advise the fashion artist to learn the principles of the centre 
of vision, the vanishing points, point of sight, etc. 

A very good exercise is a street of houses receding in the distance, 
which can be studied by most people very easily, and also another 
exercise would be to draw a tesselated pavement in lozenge squares 
of black and white. The latter is most useful and most effective. 

With just a few of these rules it should be easy to place the f igtires 
in suitable surroundings. 



XI 

FASHIONS IN HAIRDRESSING 

There is one branch of fashion drawing which is very profitable 
and not much noticed. In fact, I have not seen it mentioned in 
any advertisement of correspondence lessons or in any manual of 
instruction. It is that of drawing models of hairdressing for the 
different firms; these drawings are generally published in the 
magazines. 

In this it is essential even more than in the millinery drawings to 
sketch a pretty face ; the hair must show the very latest mode in 
hairdressing. (See Fig. 151.) It is not an easy task, as great exactitude 
is demanded, and every wave must be shown. 

MEDIUM 

Chalk or pencil seem the best medium to employ in drawing hair. 
They either of them lend themselves to giving a soft, fluffy appear- 
ance ; nothing destroys the effect of hair more than a hard wiry 
treatment. (See Fig. 152.) Wash is also effective, and line 
drawing. 

On many of the advertisement drawings for the West End 
coiffeur the name of Stanley Davies will be noticed. This artist 
seems to have made a speciality of pretty heads, some in colour, but 
very often in chalk and wash. They are artistic and give a faithful 
idea of la mode without being at all stiff. 

Nearly all of this kind of work is done directly for the shops, who 
give a good price if the sketch is well carried out. 

The artist must practise painting hair in the same way as he 
would furs or other fabrics. I mention fur, as a good fur artist 
should make a good hair artist ; the methods are similar. 



22.i 




a 
. o 

M W 




FASHIONS IN HAIRDRESSING 



227 



HAIR IN WASH 

Some advertisement drawings are in wash ; for these the paint 
must be used very liquid, all the darks put in first and high lights 
left. This should be done when the board is wet, but before it 
is quite dry the paint should be dragged over the light parts 




Fig. 153. — Head in line 

in the direction of the waves or coils and finished up by painting 
in hairs with a very fine brush. The face highly finished to 
correspond. 

IN LINE 

A few advertisements are in line (see Fig. 153), but are not, 
I think, qmte so successful ; but in some of the fashion magazines 



228 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

devoted entirely to hairdressing the sketches are very clear and 
effective. The heads are large and the hair drawn in firm, distinct 
lines, made thick in the shadows and thinning off on the top of 
a wave or coil, or even leaving a little space in the line and then 
continuing it, these breaks indicating the high lights. The faces 
have very little shadow except the eyes, which are carefully 
drawn. 

CHALK AND WASH 

Chalk is more used than the other methods. By chalk is meant 
Conte crayon. Several degrees of fineness should be bought. The 
whole of the face and hair should be sketched and shaded in first, 
and after that is finished to the artist's satisfaction a broad 
wash can be put on, and the deep shadows in the curves of the hair 
and the eyes can be much improved. 

PENCIL 

The same method can be employed in pencil drawings of hair, 
these are very artistic and delicate. In many cases the whole 
drawing is begun and finished in pencil, the shading of the face 
and the hair, and no wash used. 

THE POSE OF THE HEAD 

{See Fig. 154) 

In sketching for hairdressing the position of the head is very 
important, and various means are used to give different views 
of the same style. The most usual, of course, is a mirror in which 
you see the back of the head reflected, but there are other ingenious 
ideas. The pose of the head must be studied. It may be necessary 
to show the style of hair almost full face, but the shoulders may 
be three-quarters with the head turned round. Or if a side view 
is required the face is drawn in profile with the neck and shoulder 
back view. 

IU,USTRATIONS 

If the hair is intended to be light, the whole background is 
blacked in or very dark and cloudy. Some of the heads are also 
shown as miniatures in a frame ornamented with ribbons or 
flowers. 



FASHIONS IN HAIRDRESSING 



229 



The principal West End coiffeurs issue a brochure nearly every 
season and also have advertisements in the best ladies' magazines. 
It is almost a separate art from fashion drawing but there are 
quite a number who take it in with their other work. It requires 
some patience to get into the best methods of hairdressing, but it 
is quite worth while as it will enable the artist to draw a figure 




Fig. 154. — Hair in Line 



in evening dress with the hair properly painted for the occasion. 
It is not unusual to see a figiire beautifully painted as regards 
the dress but the head quite spoilt, the artist not having studied 
the prevailing mode. It makes a great difference to the smartness 
of a figure. 

When these various methods have been tried and the one 
selected by which the artist can get the best results and the most 
up-to-date fashion is noted, some specimens should be painted 



230 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

and the hairdressers shown the sketches. The Icx^al hairdresser, 
who seldom advertises, will perhaps give an introduction to his more 
distinguished confreres, and this makes the initial step much more 
pleasant. If an order is obtained, the instructions must be carried 
out to please the client. If more confidence or practice is needed, 
the artist may be able to get a post as assistant to one who has 
plenty of orders. Some help is frequently needed, and in that way 
valuable experience may be gained. 

FASHION PAPERS 

There are not many fashion papers dealing exclusively with 
hairdressing. Weldons issue one, I think, every year, and as only 
a few fashion artists take up this branch of their art, it would 
probably be fairly easy to get in. Many of the catalogues have 
pages devoted to hairdressing, especially those published by large 
shops or stores which have a hairdressing department. 

The illustrations in the magazines are generally advertisements 
from some particular firm, so the artist in that case would be 
employed by the hairdresser and not the paper. Some knowledge 
of historical headdresses is an asset, as some hairdressers make a 
speciality of period fashions for theatricals and fancy dress balls 
and pageants. 




P*g- ' 5 5 ■ — -^ ccessories 



XII 



ACCESSORIES 

(See Fig. 155.) 

I MUST say a word about the painting of accessories ; this is essen- 
tially catalogue work, and in a studio would be given to beginners. 
The last few pages of a catalogue are generally given over to a 
miscellaneous collection of things which, however different, must 
be shown to the best advantage. As it is not considered as 
important as the figure pages, the quality of the painting is also 
inferior. I do not see why this should be, as these large catalogues 
are contracted for, and so one page is as valuable as another to the 
printer. The figure pages are given to experienced artists, who 
naturally charge accordingly, and they in turn give over the odd 
sketches to their assistants. 

In the best catalogues attention is given to accessories, and we 
see these often despised pages quite charmingly arranged. Some- 
times the artist is given thfe task of planning the lay-out, but it 
generally falls to the lot of the advertising manager, and only a 



«3a FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

guide is given to the artist. The practice the student has had 
in depicting the variety of fabrics will here be most useful. 

GLOVES AND SHOES 

Fig. 156. The most difficult accessories to the student will be 
gloves and shoes. To make the gloves seem natural, a knowledge 
of hands in different positions is absolutely necessary, as the 
gloves are not treated separately but on the hands, which are 
drawn to call attention to some special shape or stitching. The 
experience gained in patiently devoting time to detail will give 
the artist confidence in dealing with gloves, as the stitching must 
be most neatly painted, and kid, fabric, or silk shown to advantage. 




Fig. 156. — Sketch of Gloves 

There is even scope for original ideas in this arrangement, and the 
hands are drawn grasping the wheel of a motor car for thick, or 
holding a whip for driving gloves, or with a fan for evening ones. 

SHOES 

Fig. 159. Shoes are not given to a beginner to paint, as they 
are very tricky, the style is always changing, and there is much 
more variety and detail than in gloves. To be able to paint 
shoes will give the fashion artist another chance of adding to his 
income, as whole catalogues of shoes are sent out by the numerous 
shoemakers with an attractive cover design in colour, and shoes 
and boots illustrated in every possible position, some single, some 
on both feet, as if they were walking. 

The best way to learn is to paint from the real shoes ; these 
placed in different positions, back view, side, front view, etc. 
All varieties must be tried, such as the evening shoe, the brogue. 



ACCESSORIES 233 

boots, walking shoes for the town and for the country. Even if 
the artist is never asked to sketch shoes for advertisement after 
the experience gained, it will be found most useful in costume 
painting. 

STOCKINGS 

It seems natural for shoes and stockings to follow each other 
in a catalogue. These are not quite so difficult as gloves and 
shoes, at the same time not easy. Here again is much scope for 
detail and ingenuity, especially with the fancy stockings used with 
sports coats and dresses. These stockings are checked and 




^H- '5 7- — Stockings 

ribbed, woven in diamonds and stripes. The shape of the stock- 
ing must be drawn out first, and with the exact pattern, in pencil, 
and all the diamonds and squares to fit in over the instep. The 
welt is generally a plaia colour, but the lines must indicate knitting. 
(Su Fig. 157.) 

ORNAMENTS 
Illustrations 

Some of the most charming pages of accessories are those devoted 
to bandeaux for the hair, of which there is infinite number, some 
in the Russian headdress style, others of gold leaves, flowers, fruit, 
ribbons or feathers. It is generally better to show these in use, 
and very pretty heads in these becoming ornaments find place 
in the miscellaneous pages of a catalogue ; it is amongst these that 



234 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

toupees, curls, transformations, are also illustrated, if the shop 
has a hairdressing department. 

Il,I<USTRATIONS 

Umbrellas and sunshades claim some attention, and a few rules 
must be followed. The artist must see that the handle is absolutely 




Fig. 158. — Waistcoats 

in the centre and the ribs radiating from it at regular intervals. 
If either is partly open, the ribs must be drawn curving over on the 
outside, and curving inwards on the inside, or concave and convex 
curves. 









Fig. 159. 
Examples of Shoes in Wash and one pair in Line. 



I 



ACCESSORIES 



337 



If the framework is drawn on these lines any eccentricity of fashion 
can easily be added, but no elaborate ornament or shape will hide 
the bad drawing. 

LACE 

Lace is another item which need not be dwelt upon as the different 
methods are already described in the chapter on wash and patterns 






Fig. 1 60. — Accessories 

of lace are sometimes photographed, but if it is made up into 
collars, fichus or scarves, the fashion artist is again called upon to 
paint and arrange them. Veils are sometimes shown separately if 
the mesh or pattern is very new and startling, also waistcoats and 
jabots. {See Fig. 158.) 



238 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

Illustration 

I am dealing with these as the fashion artist may have a whole 
catalogue to illustrate, and, although the chief sketches would be 
done by the artist, a lot would remain to be supervised if given to 
assistants. It is also to help those who take a post in a big studio, 
that they may be able to do everything required. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Much more need not be written about accessories (see Fig. i6o), 
there are too many to ennumerate, bags of all kinds are included, 
fans, ribbons, rolls of materials, afternoon teacloths as well as 
stationery. For the Christmas catalogue, miscellaneous articles 
are multiplied for the occasion, and include any small things suitable 
for presents, such as lamp-shades, pin-cushions, baskets, etc. 
Children are especially catered for, and a special bazaar catalogue is 
issued. The artist then finds he or she is required to paint teddy- 
bears, mechanical toys of all descriptions, dolls'-houses, aeroplanes 
and motor cars ; these are generally in line, and are done in a large 
studio, but even in this apparently trivial and rather tedious work, 
skill is required, and very neat and exact line work, so it finds a 
place in the fashion artist's training. 

The artist who specialises in dress designing must study his 
subject in the same way as he studies and practises the technique 
of drawing, and, above all, he must remember that it is not alwa3^ 
the rare and bizarre which will give him brilliant ideas, but often 
the simple, the homely, the commonplace, which inspiration will 
transmute into a thing of beauty. 



XIII 

FASHION DRAWING AS A CAREER 

It becomes more necessary every year for the daughters and 
sons of professional men to go out into the world and earn a living, 
and every year there are fresh professions and businesses open to 
them. My concern in this book is with fashion drawing as a 
career. 

I am often consulted about it and asked if it pays well, and if 
it is easy to get into a studio and how long the training will take ? 
All these are difficult questions to answer, but I will endeavour 
to take each question and explain the position of a fashion artist. 
{See Fig. 171.) 

The first question : Does it pay ? If the post of fashion artist 
in a studio is compared with a secretarial one, I should say it 
certainly pays, and imtil lately was much better paid than teaching. 
Of course, one always hears of fashion artists with a thousand 
a year or more (see Fig. 161), but that is quite at the top of the 
ladder, where there is always room. 

I will take the last question : How long the training should 
be ? Given a certain talent and some general art training, the 
student can train in a year ; some are much quicker than others 
and soon show if they will make anything of it. They must not 
despair if the first attempts are crude and hopeless looking ; a 
student who is a failure at wash drawing may make good with 
line and develop quite a talent. Much also depends upon the 
time given to practising in between the lessons. It is not an easy 
training, as some seem to think ; it must be studied as seriously 
as music, languages, shorthand, medicine, etc. — that is, unless 
the student is satisfied to be always in a subordinate position. 

With regard to getting into a fashion studio, a few of these 
take begirmers, but generally require one who is able to turn out 




Fig. i6i. — Newspaper Sketch by Miss Bessie Ascough 



FASHION DRAWING AS A CAREER 241 

good work at once. Introductions are of very little use ; perhaps 
they will enable artists to see the head of the studio, but if the 
sketches are not what is required, an introduction will not get 
them a position. 

STUDIO 

Where it is essential for the student to earn money at once 
I think I should recommend a fashion studio as a beginning. There 
she will see a great variety of work and will be able to compare 
her own and see how much she excels and how much she falls 
short of the other artists. The studios are able to take large orders, 
and by distributing the sketches amongst their workers to put the 
order through very quickly. Of course, this does not give much 
scope for originality or individuality ; you are part of a machine, 
and in some studios anyone who is good at faces is given faces 
to sketch all day and every day. Others are kept to detail, and, 
again, some more talented to making the preliminary sketches. 
This is all good practice for a time, and the discipline and necessity 
of working to time will help the student in the future. If the artist 
remains some time in a studio, unless some special talent is noticed, 
the drawing will gradually become mechanical, so after a time 
it would be better for her to become a free lance. 

COMMERCIAL STUDIOS 

(See Fig. 168) 

Some of the studios are what is known as Commercial Studios, 
that is, the work they undertake is closely connected with 
advertising ; these studios often have a department devoted 
to fashion drawing or one or two fashion artists attached to their 
staff. There is much more variety of work and more experience 
can be gained than in a studio exclusively devoted to fashions. 
(See Fig. 169.) On the other hand, the fascination of seeing the 
coloured posters in the process of being designed and painted, 
and the admiration shown for some novel and ingenious idea in 
an advertising scheme may lead the young artist to try too many 
kinds of art and too many methods. As in the fashion studio, 
a short term of work in a commercial studio is good, but should 
not be prolonged. The danger in one is too much variety, in the 
other too set and mechanical. 



242 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

FREE LANCE 

Fig. 162. A free lance artist must have a great deal of patience 
and a little money to fall back upon, as it generally means waiting 
some time before getting known. There are numbers of openings 
for free lance artists. 

First, of course, good specimens must be prepared, not too 
many, but the artist's best work ; one line drawing, one wash 
drawing of ordinary dresses, one fur in line and one in wash, one 
colour drawing and one decorative suitable for showcard, all these 
or whichever method the artist wishes to make his speciality. 
Armed with the specimens, he or she can call on some printing 
firms in the city and ask for the manager. As these managers 
are always looking out for originahty, they are quite easy to 
approach and are generally kind and helpful. 

ADVERTISING MANAGERS 

Most of the big shops have men who arrange all the advertising 
for the firm ; in some cases the sketching is given out to a large 
studio, but other men like a more individual touch and the free 
lance artist has a chance. (See Fig. 165.) 

Before caUing at the shops, always study one of their catalogues 
and see which department is given the most importance, it may 
be a branch in which you do not excel. In that case, such as 
children's clothes, do not offer any of these sketches ; the firm has 
probably a good artist already and only wishes for novelty, and 
your sketches would not reach the standard, whereas in another 
branch you may be able to turn out much better work than you 
have seen in the catalogue ; if so, you can approach the advertising 
manager with confidence. (Figs. 162-164.) As in the case of 
magazine designing, your work must either show originality or great 
skill in the usual technique. 

The advertising managers are very courteous, and the artist 
is well received ; they know exactiy what they want, and if the 
sketches submitted meet these requirements, an order will follow. 
It sometimes happens that they have efficient artists and do not 
wish to change, or the artist calls at the psychological moment 
and just fills a vacancy. Even if the staff is complete the first 
time the artist sees the advertising manager, it is well to call 



FASHION DRAWING AS A CAREER 



243 




Fig. 163. — Study of vth*t in line. Example of magatin* illustration 




Fig 163^— Illustration of strong lines for newspaper work 




Fig. 164. — Sketch by Erti 



246 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

again after two or three months, as they see so many that it is 
easy to be forgotten. 

A district should be mapped out if it is a large town, or a few 
shops visited each day. The best time to go is about the second 
or third week in January, before the work has been given out for 
the spring season. This time lasts until the second week in 
March ; there is then an interval and very little work to be obtained 
from the retail shops. Of course, there is always a certain amount 
for newspaper advertisements, which they give to their own 
artist. 

AUTUMN 

The third week in July is the time to call for the autumn and 
winter season. This lasts until the middle or end of September. 
This is the time the fur artist obtains the most work. If the artist 
interviews the advertising managers in between these seasons, 
he may be overlooked when the rush sets in, so much has to be 
crammed into the short time between the return of the buyers 
from the wholesale houses and Paris and the date on which the 
complete catalogue is published. 

I must again emphasise the necessity of studying the special 
style of the different shops. Some are entirely devoted to 
children's clothes. In that case, the sketches offered must be 
children, to a furrier's paintings of most sumptuous furs. 

I have referred briefly to magazine designing and must repeat 
the advice to the student that it is necessary to study the sketches 
in the papers before submitting specimens. Some are printed 
on glazed paper and the editor gives the artist more or less 
a free hand. In the newspapers, the process is more rapid and 
the fashion ephemeral. All these points must be taken into 
consideration. 

Throughout the book are given examples by well-known artists, 
and their success is very encouraging. In this chapter on careers, 
examples of work by Mr. C. Roller (see Fig. 171), Miss Hoare (see 
Fig. 170), Miss Olive Hewerdine (see Fig. 166), and others are 
given. 

If the artist is sent to sketch at a shop or wholesale warehouse, a 
careful pencil sketch must be made (see Fig. 167) and the description 
of the material and detail written at the side. If it is trimmed with 



248 




Fig. 165. 
Good Illustration by Tom Purvis. 



250 




Fig. i66. 
Sketch by Miss Olive Hewerdine. 



2,!;2 




-Beads. 



Material of dress, 
mauve georgette. 



— Pink rose. 



— Silk fringe. 



Lace drapery 
from shoulder 
with buckle. 



Fig. 167. 
Dress sketched at Dressmakers or Shop, 

WITH description OF DETAIL. 



253 



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255 




Fig. 170. 
Beautiful Drawing of Fur by Miss Beatrice Spiller. 



FASHION DRAWING AS A CAREER 



257 




Fig. 171. — Example of Tweed, by C. Roller 



258 FASHION DRAWING AND DESIGN 

lace or embroidery the pattern must be sketched at one side much 
larger to show the exact stitches or the mesh of the lace. 

OTHER OPENINGS FOR THE FREE LANCE 

In between the spring and autumn seasons there are numbers of 
catalogues issued by the wholesale houses and for the overseas 
trade. Buyers come over, and their agents arrange for the goods 
which have been selected to be sketched before they are shipped, 
the catalogues being sent out as soon as completed. 

' PRINTERS 

See Fig. 167. As a rule it is no use calling at the wholesale houses, 
as they do not select their own artists, but give the contract to the 
printer who is bringing out the catalogue ; he in turn employs artists 
to make the sketches, so to obtain this work it is necessary to call 
upon printers as well as shops, taking the specimens previously 
referred to. For the in-between seasons, September and very early 
January are the best times to call, or even in December. There is 
more scope with printers than with the retail shops, except the very 
big ones, as the smaller ones get the printer to do all the art work 
for them ; in this way, if the artist can get in with a good firm, he 
will be sure of steady work all the year round. 

The printers also arrange for the coloured designs of catalogue 
covers and for showcards. There is generally someone who is in 
charge of the art department who will willingly look at the speci- 
mens the artist brings ; for, unlike the applicant for an art teacher's 
post, neither the printer nor the advertising manager asks what 
examinations the artist has passed or what certificates he holds. 
What they wish to see is what work he can do and the quality of it, 
so the fashion artists must take only their best specimens. 

If the printer gives an order, even a small one, and the sketches 
are satisfactory, a very good start has been made, and a bigger 
commission will follow. 

A list of these firms and of art agents can be found in the London 
Directory, also the advertisement columns in the daily papers should 
be studied and any advertisement answered at once. Promptness 
always appeals to business people. 



FASHION DRAWING AS A CAREER 



259 



ART AGENTS 

Many artists take their sketches to art agents, and certainly it 
saves time, as the number of times he has to call at one printers or 
one shop is very discouraging — the managers are out or engaged — 
and he often has to return home alter three or four houis without 
one opportunity of showing his wares 

The art agent probably has a number of clients, and when he 
looks through the sketches (if they are up to his standard) selects a 
few which he asks the artist to leave ; or he takes down his name 
and address and writes against it his opinion and also which branch 
of art he thinks would be his speciality. {See Figs. 168 and 169.) 
If he has a client in view who wants some particular sketches, an 
order would follow quickly ; in other cases more than one visit 
must be made before there is any success. It is better not to leave 
the sketches too long, they may have been submitted and then 
put aside ; the artist should take new ones, and after three or four 
months should fetch them all away, and try other agents who may 
have amongst their clients just the man who is looking out for the 
kind of work offered. 

PRO\aNCIAL CLIENTS 

Another way in which the art agent can be of use is with provincial 
clients. It is impossible for a free lance artist, who is doing all the 
sketching himself, to get into touch with firms at a distance ; these 
generally apply to a big studio or agent, and ask them for the name 
of an artist whom they can recommend. They then communicate 
with him direct, and if he secures an order he pays a commission to 
the art agent. 

There are ver>' many art agents and commercial studios who now 
undertake to place work, and given good conditions of trade, and 
talent and enterprise on the part of the artist, he should make good ; 
but he must have patience. 

It will be seen that there is a great scope for the ambitious fashion 
artist but he must have initiative, " the infinite capacity for taking 
pains," and much perseverance. The cry of the day is to specialise, 
and it is better to make a name in one branch of art than be able 
to do a variety of styles without rising above mediocrity. 

There are many steps up to the advertising manager's room, and 
many up the ladder of fame. 



INDEX 

N.B. — Those figures which appear in heavy type indicate the pages 
on which illustrations appear. 



Accessories, 2 3 1 
Accessories, Gloves, 232 
Accessories, Lace, 237 
Accessories, Ornaments, 233 
Accessories, Shoes, 232, 235 
Accessories, Stockings, 233 
Accessories, Waistcoats, 234 
Aerograph, 104, 108 
Arm, The, 25, 30 
Autumn Background, 217 

B 

Backgrounds, 209, 212, 214, 216, 

217, 219, 221 
Ball Hresses, 2 
Beatrice d'Este, 4 
Beaver, 141 
Blouses, 56 
Braid, 53 
Brocade, 45 
Brocade in Line, 77, 143 



Career of Fashion Artist, 239 
Celanese, 82 

Chalk and Wash, 102, 139 
Children, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 

119, 121, 253 
Chinese Embroideries, 194, 206 
Chinese Influence, 183 
Chinese Dress, 199 
Colour Drawings, Frontispiece, 154, 

173, 175, 177 
Colour Drawings, Materials 
Colour Drawings, Methods, 155, 158 
Colour Drawings, Reproduction of, 

159-165 
Colours, Mixing, 109, 155 
Consulate Period, 2 
Correcrions, 91 
Court Dress, 197 



Detail, 44, 127 
Details in Wash, 40 
Details in Line, 74, 77, 81 
Details. Millinery, 144, 145 
Dress, Drawing, 43 
Drapery, 30, 31, 33 
Drawing Materials, 17, 18 



Early Victorian Period, 11, 12 
Egyptian Influence, 11, 207 
Elizabeth, Queen, 9 
Embroidery, 40, 70, 126 
Empire Period, 13 
Evening Frock, 185, 212 
Evening Head-dresses, 148 
Evening Shawl, 27 
Eyes, The, 25 



Fabrics, 54 
Fancy Dress, 198 
Fans, 59 

Fashion Design, 182, 183 
Feathers, 143 
Feet and Legs, 26 
Fifteenth Century Costume, 201 
Figure Studies, 24 
Flat Colour, 177 
Flounced Skirt, 45 
Fur, 49, 56, 57, 59, 79, 83, 84, 85, 
86, 255 



Georgette, 126 

Gloves, 232 

Graduated Tints and Shadings, 104 

Grecian Dress, 203, 204 

H 

Hairdressing Fashions, 224, 225 
Hairdressing Fashions in Line, 227, 

229 
Hands, 21, 25 
Hat Materials, 1 34 
Hats, 41, 52, 79, 82, 83, 86, 93, 

95, 106, 139, 142, 143, 147, 153 
Hats, Examples of Drawing in Four 

Stages, 136-7 
Hats in Colour, Frontispiece, 159- 

165 
Head, The, 25 
Head-dresses, Evening, 148 
Herringbone, 40 
Historical Dress, 196, 201 

I 

indian Influence, 184 
Introduction, 3 



261 



262 



INDEX 



Japanese Influence, 
Jet Trimming. 149 
Jumpers, 72, 82 



176 



Lace, 40, 44, 81, 237 

Legs and Feet, 26 

I^ighton, Lord, Drawings by, 21, 

33 
Line and Wash, 89, 92, 93, 95, 99, 

139 
Line Drawing, 63, 64, 66, 70, 71, 

72, 73, 78-88, 128, 131 
Line Drawing with Mechanical 

Tints, 69 
Line Detail, 67 
Ijnes, Simple, 68 
Lingerie, 112, 122, 123, 128, 130, 

131, I S2 

Louis XVIII Period, 2 

M 

Magazine designs, 205 

Masses, 67 

Materials for Drawing, 17 

Mechanical Tints. Use of. 69, 78, 79, 

87 
Millinery. 133 
Millinery Details, 145 
Mouth, The, 26 
Muffs, 33 



N 



Neck, The, 26 
Nude Studies, 24 



Oil Painting, 216 
Oriental Veil, 149 
Ornaments, 233 



Pencil Sketches, 16, 19, 27 
Period Fashions, 188, 189, 192 
Plaids, 54 
Plumes, 143 

Preliminary Sketch, 16, 17, 27 
Printing of Colour Reproductions, 
169 



Reproduction of Colour, 159-165, 

169 
Rest Gown, 126 
Ribbon, 142 



Serge, Rendered by Line, 71 

Seventeenth Century Costume. 201 

Shawls, 27, 41, 70 

Shoes, 232, 235 

Showcard in Colour, 178 

Silhouette, 110, iii 

Silk, Rendering of, 54, 66, 77 

Skirts, 45 

Sleeves, 30 

Spatter Work, 103, 106 

Sports Dress, 214, 219, 248, 257 

Straw Hats, 141 

Stockings, 233 



Theatrical Dress, 197 
Tints, Aerograph, 104 
Trimming, 127 
Trimming, Designs for, 205 
Trimming, Jet, 149 
Tweed, Rendered in Line, 77 



Veils, 136, 137, 149, 151 

Velour, 141 
Velvet, 48, 57, 126 
Victorian, Early, 1 1 
Victorian Influence, 196 



W 

Waistcoats, 234 

Walking Dress (Early Victorian), 12 

Wash and Chalk, 102, 139 

Wash and Line, 89, 92, 93, 95, 99, 

139 
Wash Drawings, 32, 36-7, 40, 41, 

45, 52, 56, 59, 123, 137 
Wash Drawings, Correction of, <;8 
Wool Coat, 41 
Wool Jumpers, 72 



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ONTAPIO COLLEGE OF ART 



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DATE DUE 


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CAT. NO. It>7 











NC CHADV/ICK, LUIE. 
2010 FASHION DRAWING 
032 AND DESIGN; A 
^^^' PRACTICAL 
MANUAL. 



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100 //...«^i. ST. 
lOftONTO 28, ONTARIO 



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